The Afghan Taliban have announced a new head to replace Mullah Akhtar Mansour, who was killed in a US drone strike. Mawlawi Haibatullah Akhundzada, who is in his 50s, is the newly elected Taliban leader. According to a founding member of the group, Sayed Mohammad Akbar Agha, Akhundzada is principally known as a religious teacher and scholar among the Taliban.
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- Mullah Akhtar Mansour Mullah Akhtar Mansour is the ...
Mullah Akhtar Mansour
Mullah Akhtar Mansour is the new leader of the Taliban after the death of Mullah Omar. His "appointment" to power has been under fire within the Taliban with them saying that not everyone in the Taliban appointed him. This goes against Sharia Law which is what they follow strictly.
Taliban The Taliban (Pashto: طالبان ṭālibān "students"), alternately spelled Taleban, is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan. It spread throughout Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. However, it gained diplomatic recognition from only three states: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Mohammed Omar is the founder and has been serving as the spiritual leader of the Taliban since its foundation in 1994. While in power, it enforced a strict interpretation of Sharia, or Islamic law, an interpretation of which leading Muslims have been highly critical. The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women. The majority of the Taliban are made up of Afghan Pashtun tribesmen. The Taliban's leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism, and many also strictly follow the social and cultural norm called Pashtunwali. From 1995 to 2001, the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence and military are widely alleged by the international community to have provided support to the Taliban. Their connections are possibly through Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, a terrorist group founded by Sami ul Haq. Pakistan is accused by many international officials of continuing to support the Taliban; Pakistan states that it dropped all support for the group after 9/11. Al-Qaeda also supported the Taliban with regiments of imported fighters from Arab countries and Central Asia. Saudi Arabia provided financial support. The Taliban and their allies committed massacres against Afghan civilians, denied UN food supplies to 160,000 starving civilians and conducted a policy of scorched earth, burning vast areas of fertile land and destroying tens of thousands of homes during their rule from 1996 to 2001. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced to flee to United Front-controlled territory, Pakistan, and Iran. After the attacks of September 11, 2001, the Taliban were overthrown by the American-led invasion of Afghanistan. Later it regrouped as an insurgency movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). The Taliban have been accused of using terrorism as a specific tactic to further their ideological and political goals. According to the United Nations, the Taliban and their allies were responsible for 75% of Afghan civilian casualties in 2010, 80% in 2011, and 80% in 2012. ^ a b http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/347009"To rule Afghanistan and impose the groups interpretation of Islamic law which includes influences of Deobandi fundamentalism and Pashtunwali culture"Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/347009#ixzz3BqDqscCB ^ Deobandi Islam: The Religion of the Taliban U. S. Navy Chaplain Corps, 15 October 2001 ^ name=Maley2>Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8. ^ http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/print/opr/t236/e0895"The Taliban's primary religious and ideological influence is a form of Deobandī Islam." ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000) ^ "Why are Customary Pashtun Laws and Ethics Causes for Concern? | Center for Strategic and International Studies". Csis.org. 2010-10-19. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Understanding taliban through the prism of Pashtunwali code". CF2R. 2013-11-30. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Afghan Taliban". National Counterterrorism Center. Retrieved 7 April 2015. ^ a b Giustozzi, Antonio (2009). Decoding the new Taliban: insights from the Afghan field. Columbia University Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-231-70112-9. ^ a b Clements, Frank A. (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: An Encyclopedia (Roots of Modern Conflict). ABC-CLIO. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8. ^ ^ "ISIS active in south Afghanistan, officials confirm for first time". 12 January 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015. ^ "Taliban and the Northern Alliance". US Gov Info. About.com. Retrieved 2009-11-26. ^ 9/11 seven years later: US 'safe,' South Asia in turmoil "There are now some 62,000 foreign soldiers in Afghanistan, including 34,000 US troops, and some 150,000 Afghan security forces. They face an estimated 7,000 to 11,000 insurgents, according to US commanders." Retrieved 2010-08-24. ^ Hamilton, Fiona; Coates, Sam; Savage, Michael (2010-03-03). "MajorGeneral Richard Barrons puts Taleban fighter numbers at 36000". The Times (London). ^ "Despite Massive Taliban Death Toll No Drop in Insurgency". Voice of America. Akmal Dawi. Retrieved 2014-07-17. ^ Giustozzi, Antonio (2009). Decoding the new Taliban: insights from the Afghan field. Columbia University Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-231-70112-9. ^ "Pakistan militants preparing for Afghanistan civil war". Fox News. 2013-09-08. Retrieved 2013-09-29. ^ "Afghanistan forces defend Kunduz from Taliban". BBC. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015. ^ "BBC News - Rare look at Afghan National Army's Taliban fight". Bbc.com. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Taliban attack NATO base in Afghanistan - Central & South Asia". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "ISIS reportedly moves into Afghanistan, is even fighting Taliban". 12 January 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015. ^ "ISIS, Taliban announced Jihad against each other". Khaama Press. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015. ^ "Taliban leader: allegiance to ISIS ‘haram’". Rudaw. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015. ^ "Analysis: Who are the Taleban?". BBC News. 2000-12-20. ^ "From the article on the Taliban in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxford Islamic Studies. Retrieved 2010-08-27. ^ Abrams, Dennis (2007). Hamid Karzai. Infobase Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7910-9267-5. As soon as it took power though, the Taliban imposed its strict interpretation of Islamic law on the country ^ Skain, Rosemarie (2002). The women of Afghanistan under the Taliban. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-1090-3. ^ James Gerstenzan; Lisa Getter (November 18, 2001). "Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 14, 2012. ^ "Women's Rights in the Taliban and Post-Taliban Eras". A Woman Among Warlords. PBS. September 11, 2007. Retrieved September 14, 2012. ^ Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8. ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The limits of culture: Islam and foreign policy (illustrated ed.). MIT Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-262-69321-9. The Taliban's mindset is, however, equally if not more deaned by Pashtunwali ^ Giraldo, Jeanne K. (2007). Terrorism Financing and State Responses: A Comparative Perspective. Stanford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-8047-5566-5. Pakistan provided military support, including arms, ammunition, fuel, and military advisers, to the Taliban through its Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) ^ Nojumi, Neamatollah (2002). The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War and the Future of the Regio. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-312-29584-4. ^ "Pakistan's support of the Taliban". Human Rights Watch. 2000. Of all the foreign powers involved in efforts to sustain and manipulate the ongoing fighting [in Afghanistan], Pakistan is distinguished both by the sweep of its objectives and the scale of its efforts, which include soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and ... directly providing combat support. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas (2011-09-22). "Admiral Mullen: Pakistani ISI sponsoring Haqqani attacks". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 2011-12-01. During a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing today, Admiral Michael Mullen, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, highlighted the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence Agency's role in sponsoring the Haqqani Network - including attacks on American forces in Afghanistan. "The fact remains that the Quetta Shura [Taliban] and the Haqqani Network operate from Pakistan with impunity," Mullen said in his written testimony. "Extremist organizations serving as proxies of the government of Pakistan are attacking Afghan troops and civilians as well as US soldiers." Mullen continued: "For example, we believe the Haqqani Network--which has long enjoyed the support and protection of the Pakistani government and is, in many ways, a strategic arm of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Agency--is responsible for the September 13th attacks against the U.S. Embassy in Kabul." ^ Barnes, Julian E.; Matthew Rosenberg; Habib Khan Totakhil (2010-10-05). "Pakistan Urges On Taliban". The Wall Street Journal. the ISI wants us to kill everyone—policemen, soldiers, engineers, teachers, civilians—just to intimidate people, ^ Researcher, CQ (2010). Issues in Terrorism and Homeland Security: Selections From CQ Researcher. Sage. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-4129-9201-5. ^ "Afghanistan resistance leader feared dead in blast". London: Ahmed Rashid in the Telegraph. 2001-09-11. ^ Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader (March 1, 2009 ed.). Webster University Press. p. 310. ^ US attack on Taliban kills 23 in Pakistan, The New York Times, 2008-09-09 ^ Nojum, Neamatollah (2002). The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War and the Future of the Region. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-312-29584-4. ^ Rashid, Ahmed (2002). Taliban: Islam, Oil and the New Great Game in Central Asia. I.B.Tauris. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-86064-830-4. ^ Gargan, Edward A (October 2001). "Taliban massacres outlined for UN". Chicago Tribune. ^ "Confidential UN report details mass killings of civilian villagers". Newsday. newsday.org. 2001. Retrieved 2001-10-12. ^ U.N. says Taliban starving hungry people for military agenda, Associated Press, 1998-01-07 ^ Goodson, Larry P. (2002). Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics and the Rise of the Taliban. University of Washington Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-295-98111-6. ^ a b "Re-Creating Afghanistan: Returning to Istalif". NPR. 2002-08-01. ^ ISAF has participating forces from 39 countries, including all 26 NATO members. See ISAF Troop Contribution Placement (PDF), NATO, 2007-12-05, archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-11-09 ^ Skaine, Rosemarie (2009). Women of Afghanistan in the Post-Taliban Era: How Lives Have Changed and Where They Stand Today. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-3792-4. ^ Shanty, Frank (2011). The Nexus: International Terrorism and Drug Trafficking from Afghanistan. Praeger. pp. 86–88. ISBN 978-0-313-38521-6. ^ "Citing rising death toll, UN urges better protection of Afghan civilians". United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. ^ Haddon, Katherine (6 October 2011). "Afghanistan marks 10 years since war started". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. ^ "UN: Taliban Responsible for 76% of Deaths in Afghanistan". The Weekly Standard. 2010-08-10.
Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 31 million people, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and China in the far northeast. Its territory covers 652,000 km2 (252,000 sq mi), making it the 41st largest country in the world.
Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia. Through the ages the land has been home to various peoples and witnessed numerous military campaigns, notably by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, Mongols, British, Soviet Russians, and in the modern-era by Western powers. The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khiljis, Mughals, Hotaks,Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and theRussian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah and King Mohammed Zahir Shahattempted to modernize the country. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a Soviet invasion and a series of civil wars that devastated much of Afghanistan.