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Mullah Akhtar Mansour to be Replaced by New Taliban Leader

Mullah Akhtar Mansour to be Replaced by New Taliban Leader

The Afghan Taliban have announced a new head to replace Mullah Akhtar Mansour, who was killed in a US drone strike. Mawlawi Haibatullah Akhundzada, who is in his 50s, is the newly elected Taliban leader. According to a founding member of the group, Sayed Mohammad Akbar Agha, Akhundzada is principally known as a religious teacher and scholar among the Taliban.

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  • Mullah Akhtar Mansour   Mullah Akhtar Mansour is the ...
  • Mullah Akhtar Mansour

    Mullah Akhtar Mansour is the new leader of the Taliban after the death of Mullah Omar. His "appointment" to power has been under fire within the Taliban with them saying that not everyone in the Taliban appointed him. This goes against Sharia Law which is what they follow strictly.

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  • Taliban
    The Taliban (Pashto: طالبان‎ ṭālibān "students"), alternately spelled Taleban, is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan. It spread throughout Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. However, it gained diplomatic recognition from only three states: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Mohammed Omar is the founder and has been serving as the spiritual leader of the Taliban since its foundation in 1994. While in power, it enforced a strict interpretation of Sharia, or Islamic law, an interpretation of which leading Muslims have been highly critical. The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women. The majority of the Taliban are made up of Afghan Pashtun tribesmen. The Taliban's leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism, and many also strictly follow the social and cultural norm called Pashtunwali. From 1995 to 2001, the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence and military are widely alleged by the international community to have provided support to the Taliban. Their connections are possibly through Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, a terrorist group founded by Sami ul Haq. Pakistan is accused by many international officials of continuing to support the Taliban; Pakistan states that it dropped all support for the group after 9/11. Al-Qaeda also supported the Taliban with regiments of imported fighters from Arab countries and Central Asia. Saudi Arabia provided financial support. The Taliban and their allies committed massacres against Afghan civilians, denied UN food supplies to 160,000 starving civilians and conducted a policy of scorched earth, burning vast areas of fertile land and destroying tens of thousands of homes during their rule from 1996 to 2001. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced to flee to United Front-controlled territory, Pakistan, and Iran. After the attacks of September 11, 2001, the Taliban were overthrown by the American-led invasion of Afghanistan. Later it regrouped as an insurgency movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). The Taliban have been accused of using terrorism as a specific tactic to further their ideological and political goals. According to the United Nations, the Taliban and their allies were responsible for 75% of Afghan civilian casualties in 2010, 80% in 2011, and 80% in 2012. ^ a b http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/347009"To rule Afghanistan and impose the groups interpretation of Islamic law which includes influences of Deobandi fundamentalism and Pashtunwali culture"Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/347009#ixzz3BqDqscCB ^ Deobandi Islam: The Religion of the Taliban U. S. Navy Chaplain Corps, 15 October 2001 ^ name=Maley2>Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8. ^ http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/print/opr/t236/e0895"The Taliban's primary religious and ideological influence is a form of Deobandī Islam." ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000) ^ "Why are Customary Pashtun Laws and Ethics Causes for Concern? | Center for Strategic and International Studies". Csis.org. 2010-10-19. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Understanding taliban through the prism of Pashtunwali code". CF2R. 2013-11-30. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Afghan Taliban". National Counterterrorism Center. Retrieved 7 April 2015. ^ a b Giustozzi, Antonio (2009). Decoding the new Taliban: insights from the Afghan field. Columbia University Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-231-70112-9. ^ a b Clements, Frank A. (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: An Encyclopedia (Roots of Modern Conflict). ABC-CLIO. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8. ^ ^ "ISIS active in south Afghanistan, officials confirm for first time". 12 January 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015. ^ "Taliban and the Northern Alliance". US Gov Info. About.com. Retrieved 2009-11-26. ^ 9/11 seven years later: US 'safe,' South Asia in turmoil "There are now some 62,000 foreign soldiers in Afghanistan, including 34,000 US troops, and some 150,000 Afghan security forces. They face an estimated 7,000 to 11,000 insurgents, according to US commanders." Retrieved 2010-08-24. ^ Hamilton, Fiona; Coates, Sam; Savage, Michael (2010-03-03). "MajorGeneral Richard Barrons puts Taleban fighter numbers at 36000". The Times (London). ^ "Despite Massive Taliban Death Toll No Drop in Insurgency". Voice of America. Akmal Dawi. Retrieved 2014-07-17. ^ Giustozzi, Antonio (2009). Decoding the new Taliban: insights from the Afghan field. Columbia University Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-231-70112-9. ^ "Pakistan militants preparing for Afghanistan civil war". Fox News. 2013-09-08. Retrieved 2013-09-29. ^ "Afghanistan forces defend Kunduz from Taliban". BBC. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015. ^ "BBC News - Rare look at Afghan National Army's Taliban fight". Bbc.com. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Taliban attack NATO base in Afghanistan - Central & South Asia". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "ISIS reportedly moves into Afghanistan, is even fighting Taliban". 12 January 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015. ^ "ISIS, Taliban announced Jihad against each other". Khaama Press. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015. ^ "Taliban leader: allegiance to ISIS ‘haram’". Rudaw. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015. ^ "Analysis: Who are the Taleban?". BBC News. 2000-12-20. ^ "From the article on the Taliban in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxford Islamic Studies. Retrieved 2010-08-27. ^ Abrams, Dennis (2007). Hamid Karzai. Infobase Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7910-9267-5. As soon as it took power though, the Taliban imposed its strict interpretation of Islamic law on the country ^ Skain, Rosemarie (2002). The women of Afghanistan under the Taliban. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-1090-3. ^ James Gerstenzan; Lisa Getter (November 18, 2001). "Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 14, 2012. ^ "Women's Rights in the Taliban and Post-Taliban Eras". A Woman Among Warlords. PBS. September 11, 2007. Retrieved September 14, 2012. ^ Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8. ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The limits of culture: Islam and foreign policy (illustrated ed.). MIT Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-262-69321-9. The Taliban's mindset is, however, equally if not more deaned by Pashtunwali ^ Giraldo, Jeanne K. (2007). Terrorism Financing and State Responses: A Comparative Perspective. Stanford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-8047-5566-5. Pakistan provided military support, including arms, ammunition, fuel, and military advisers, to the Taliban through its Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) ^ Nojumi, Neamatollah (2002). The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War and the Future of the Regio. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-312-29584-4. ^ "Pakistan's support of the Taliban". Human Rights Watch. 2000. Of all the foreign powers involved in efforts to sustain and manipulate the ongoing fighting [in Afghanistan], Pakistan is distinguished both by the sweep of its objectives and the scale of its efforts, which include soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and ... directly providing combat support. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas (2011-09-22). "Admiral Mullen: Pakistani ISI sponsoring Haqqani attacks". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 2011-12-01. During a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing today, Admiral Michael Mullen, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, highlighted the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence Agency's role in sponsoring the Haqqani Network - including attacks on American forces in Afghanistan. "The fact remains that the Quetta Shura [Taliban] and the Haqqani Network operate from Pakistan with impunity," Mullen said in his written testimony. "Extremist organizations serving as proxies of the government of Pakistan are attacking Afghan troops and civilians as well as US soldiers." Mullen continued: "For example, we believe the Haqqani Network--which has long enjoyed the support and protection of the Pakistani government and is, in many ways, a strategic arm of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Agency--is responsible for the September 13th attacks against the U.S. Embassy in Kabul." ^ Barnes, Julian E.; Matthew Rosenberg; Habib Khan Totakhil (2010-10-05). "Pakistan Urges On Taliban". The Wall Street Journal. the ISI wants us to kill everyone—policemen, soldiers, engineers, teachers, civilians—just to intimidate people, ^ Researcher, CQ (2010). Issues in Terrorism and Homeland Security: Selections From CQ Researcher. Sage. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-4129-9201-5. ^ "Afghanistan resistance leader feared dead in blast". London: Ahmed Rashid in the Telegraph. 2001-09-11. ^ Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader (March 1, 2009 ed.). Webster University Press. p. 310. ^ US attack on Taliban kills 23 in Pakistan, The New York Times, 2008-09-09 ^ Nojum, Neamatollah (2002). The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War and the Future of the Region. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-312-29584-4. ^ Rashid, Ahmed (2002). Taliban: Islam, Oil and the New Great Game in Central Asia. I.B.Tauris. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-86064-830-4. ^ Gargan, Edward A (October 2001). "Taliban massacres outlined for UN". Chicago Tribune. ^ "Confidential UN report details mass killings of civilian villagers". Newsday. newsday.org. 2001. Retrieved 2001-10-12. ^ U.N. says Taliban starving hungry people for military agenda, Associated Press, 1998-01-07 ^ Goodson, Larry P. (2002). Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics and the Rise of the Taliban. University of Washington Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-295-98111-6. ^ a b "Re-Creating Afghanistan: Returning to Istalif". NPR. 2002-08-01. ^ ISAF has participating forces from 39 countries, including all 26 NATO members. See ISAF Troop Contribution Placement (PDF), NATO, 2007-12-05, archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-11-09 ^ Skaine, Rosemarie (2009). Women of Afghanistan in the Post-Taliban Era: How Lives Have Changed and Where They Stand Today. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-3792-4. ^ Shanty, Frank (2011). The Nexus: International Terrorism and Drug Trafficking from Afghanistan. Praeger. pp. 86–88. ISBN 978-0-313-38521-6. ^ "Citing rising death toll, UN urges better protection of Afghan civilians". United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. ^ Haddon, Katherine (6 October 2011). "Afghanistan marks 10 years since war started". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. ^ "UN: Taliban Responsible for 76% of Deaths in Afghanistan". The Weekly Standard. 2010-08-10.
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  • Afghanistan

    Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 31 million people, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and China in the far northeast. Its territory covers 652,000 km2 (252,000 sq mi), making it the 41st largest country in the world.

    Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia. Through the ages the land has been home to various peoples and witnessed numerous military campaigns, notably by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, Mongols, British, Soviet Russians, and in the modern-era by Western powers. The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khiljis, Mughals, Hotaks,Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.

    The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and theRussian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah and King Mohammed Zahir Shahattempted to modernize the country. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a Soviet invasion and a series of civil wars that devastated much of Afghanistan.

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Taliban announce new leader

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Taliban confirms death of Mullah Akhtar Muhammad Mansour

Taliban confirms death of Mullah Akhtar Muhammad Mansour

On Wednesday morning, the Taliban confirmed the death of Mullah Akhtar Muhammad Mansour, the group’s leader. In a statement, the group said Mullah Mansour was killed in an American drone strike. Mawlawi Haibatullah Akhundzada, a deputy to Mullah Mansour, has been selected as the new leader of the Taliban. President Barack Obama announced that Mullah Mansour had been killed in a drone strike on Monday in a province of Pakistan, but until Wednesday, the Taliban had not acknowledged the strike.

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  • Taliban in Pakistan   Not to be confused with the Afg...
  • Taliban in Pakistan
    Not to be confused with the Afghan Taliban. Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP; Urdu: تحریک طالبان پاکستان; "Taliban Movement of Pakistan"), alternatively referred to as the Pakistani Taliban, is an umbrella organization of various Islamist militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan. Most, but not all, Pakistani Taliban groups coalesce under the TTP. In December 2007 about 13 groups united under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud to form the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan. Among the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan's stated objectives are resistance against the Pakistani state, enforcement of their interpretation of sharia and a plan to unite against NATO-led forces in Afghanistan. The TTP is not directly affiliated with the Afghan Taliban movement led by Mullah Omar, with both groups differing greatly in their histories, strategic goals and interests although they are both predominantly Pashtun. The Afghan Taliban, with the alleged support of Pakistani Taliban, operate against international coalition and Afghan security forces in Afghanistan but are strictly opposed to targeting the Pakistani state. The TTP in contrast has almost exclusively targeted elements of the Pakistani state although it took credit for the 2009 Camp Chapman attack and the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt. Maulana Fazlullah became the group's new leader in late 2013. In the following year the TTP fragmented into at least four groups, with the defections said to have left the group in considerable disarray.
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  • Taliban
    The Taliban (Pashto: طالبان‎ ṭālibān "students"), alternately spelled Taleban, is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan. It spread throughout Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. However, it gained diplomatic recognition from only three states: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Mohammed Omar is the founder and has been serving as the spiritual leader of the Taliban since its foundation in 1994. While in power, it enforced a strict interpretation of Sharia, or Islamic law, an interpretation of which leading Muslims have been highly critical. The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women. The majority of the Taliban are made up of Afghan Pashtun tribesmen. The Taliban's leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism, and many also strictly follow the social and cultural norm called Pashtunwali. From 1995 to 2001, the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence and military are widely alleged by the international community to have provided support to the Taliban. Their connections are possibly through Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, a terrorist group founded by Sami ul Haq. Pakistan is accused by many international officials of continuing to support the Taliban; Pakistan states that it dropped all support for the group after 9/11. Al-Qaeda also supported the Taliban with regiments of imported fighters from Arab countries and Central Asia. Saudi Arabia provided financial support. The Taliban and their allies committed massacres against Afghan civilians, denied UN food supplies to 160,000 starving civilians and conducted a policy of scorched earth, burning vast areas of fertile land and destroying tens of thousands of homes during their rule from 1996 to 2001. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced to flee to United Front-controlled territory, Pakistan, and Iran. After the attacks of September 11, 2001, the Taliban were overthrown by the American-led invasion of Afghanistan. Later it regrouped as an insurgency movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). The Taliban have been accused of using terrorism as a specific tactic to further their ideological and political goals. According to the United Nations, the Taliban and their allies were responsible for 75% of Afghan civilian casualties in 2010, 80% in 2011, and 80% in 2012. ^ a b http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/347009"To rule Afghanistan and impose the groups interpretation of Islamic law which includes influences of Deobandi fundamentalism and Pashtunwali culture"Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/347009#ixzz3BqDqscCB ^ Deobandi Islam: The Religion of the Taliban U. S. Navy Chaplain Corps, 15 October 2001 ^ name=Maley2>Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8. ^ http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/print/opr/t236/e0895"The Taliban's primary religious and ideological influence is a form of Deobandī Islam." ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000) ^ "Why are Customary Pashtun Laws and Ethics Causes for Concern? | Center for Strategic and International Studies". Csis.org. 2010-10-19. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Understanding taliban through the prism of Pashtunwali code". CF2R. 2013-11-30. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Afghan Taliban". National Counterterrorism Center. Retrieved 7 April 2015. ^ a b Giustozzi, Antonio (2009). Decoding the new Taliban: insights from the Afghan field. Columbia University Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-231-70112-9. ^ a b Clements, Frank A. (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: An Encyclopedia (Roots of Modern Conflict). ABC-CLIO. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8. ^ ^ "ISIS active in south Afghanistan, officials confirm for first time". 12 January 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015. ^ "Taliban and the Northern Alliance". US Gov Info. About.com. Retrieved 2009-11-26. ^ 9/11 seven years later: US 'safe,' South Asia in turmoil "There are now some 62,000 foreign soldiers in Afghanistan, including 34,000 US troops, and some 150,000 Afghan security forces. They face an estimated 7,000 to 11,000 insurgents, according to US commanders." Retrieved 2010-08-24. ^ Hamilton, Fiona; Coates, Sam; Savage, Michael (2010-03-03). "MajorGeneral Richard Barrons puts Taleban fighter numbers at 36000". The Times (London). ^ "Despite Massive Taliban Death Toll No Drop in Insurgency". Voice of America. Akmal Dawi. Retrieved 2014-07-17. ^ Giustozzi, Antonio (2009). Decoding the new Taliban: insights from the Afghan field. Columbia University Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-231-70112-9. ^ "Pakistan militants preparing for Afghanistan civil war". Fox News. 2013-09-08. Retrieved 2013-09-29. ^ "Afghanistan forces defend Kunduz from Taliban". BBC. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015. ^ "BBC News - Rare look at Afghan National Army's Taliban fight". Bbc.com. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Taliban attack NATO base in Afghanistan - Central & South Asia". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "ISIS reportedly moves into Afghanistan, is even fighting Taliban". 12 January 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015. ^ "ISIS, Taliban announced Jihad against each other". Khaama Press. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015. ^ "Taliban leader: allegiance to ISIS ‘haram’". Rudaw. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015. ^ "Analysis: Who are the Taleban?". BBC News. 2000-12-20. ^ "From the article on the Taliban in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxford Islamic Studies. Retrieved 2010-08-27. ^ Abrams, Dennis (2007). Hamid Karzai. Infobase Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7910-9267-5. As soon as it took power though, the Taliban imposed its strict interpretation of Islamic law on the country ^ Skain, Rosemarie (2002). The women of Afghanistan under the Taliban. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-1090-3. ^ James Gerstenzan; Lisa Getter (November 18, 2001). "Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 14, 2012. ^ "Women's Rights in the Taliban and Post-Taliban Eras". A Woman Among Warlords. PBS. September 11, 2007. Retrieved September 14, 2012. ^ Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8. ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The limits of culture: Islam and foreign policy (illustrated ed.). MIT Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-262-69321-9. The Taliban's mindset is, however, equally if not more deaned by Pashtunwali ^ Giraldo, Jeanne K. (2007). Terrorism Financing and State Responses: A Comparative Perspective. Stanford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-8047-5566-5. Pakistan provided military support, including arms, ammunition, fuel, and military advisers, to the Taliban through its Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) ^ Nojumi, Neamatollah (2002). The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War and the Future of the Regio. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-312-29584-4. ^ "Pakistan's support of the Taliban". Human Rights Watch. 2000. Of all the foreign powers involved in efforts to sustain and manipulate the ongoing fighting [in Afghanistan], Pakistan is distinguished both by the sweep of its objectives and the scale of its efforts, which include soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and ... directly providing combat support. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas (2011-09-22). "Admiral Mullen: Pakistani ISI sponsoring Haqqani attacks". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 2011-12-01. During a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing today, Admiral Michael Mullen, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, highlighted the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence Agency's role in sponsoring the Haqqani Network - including attacks on American forces in Afghanistan. "The fact remains that the Quetta Shura [Taliban] and the Haqqani Network operate from Pakistan with impunity," Mullen said in his written testimony. "Extremist organizations serving as proxies of the government of Pakistan are attacking Afghan troops and civilians as well as US soldiers." Mullen continued: "For example, we believe the Haqqani Network--which has long enjoyed the support and protection of the Pakistani government and is, in many ways, a strategic arm of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Agency--is responsible for the September 13th attacks against the U.S. Embassy in Kabul." ^ Barnes, Julian E.; Matthew Rosenberg; Habib Khan Totakhil (2010-10-05). "Pakistan Urges On Taliban". The Wall Street Journal. the ISI wants us to kill everyone—policemen, soldiers, engineers, teachers, civilians—just to intimidate people, ^ Researcher, CQ (2010). Issues in Terrorism and Homeland Security: Selections From CQ Researcher. Sage. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-4129-9201-5. ^ "Afghanistan resistance leader feared dead in blast". London: Ahmed Rashid in the Telegraph. 2001-09-11. ^ Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader (March 1, 2009 ed.). Webster University Press. p. 310. ^ US attack on Taliban kills 23 in Pakistan, The New York Times, 2008-09-09 ^ Nojum, Neamatollah (2002). The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War and the Future of the Region. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-312-29584-4. ^ Rashid, Ahmed (2002). Taliban: Islam, Oil and the New Great Game in Central Asia. I.B.Tauris. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-86064-830-4. ^ Gargan, Edward A (October 2001). "Taliban massacres outlined for UN". Chicago Tribune. ^ "Confidential UN report details mass killings of civilian villagers". Newsday. newsday.org. 2001. Retrieved 2001-10-12. ^ U.N. says Taliban starving hungry people for military agenda, Associated Press, 1998-01-07 ^ Goodson, Larry P. (2002). Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics and the Rise of the Taliban. University of Washington Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-295-98111-6. ^ a b "Re-Creating Afghanistan: Returning to Istalif". NPR. 2002-08-01. ^ ISAF has participating forces from 39 countries, including all 26 NATO members. See ISAF Troop Contribution Placement (PDF), NATO, 2007-12-05, archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-11-09 ^ Skaine, Rosemarie (2009). Women of Afghanistan in the Post-Taliban Era: How Lives Have Changed and Where They Stand Today. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-3792-4. ^ Shanty, Frank (2011). The Nexus: International Terrorism and Drug Trafficking from Afghanistan. Praeger. pp. 86–88. ISBN 978-0-313-38521-6. ^ "Citing rising death toll, UN urges better protection of Afghan civilians". United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. ^ Haddon, Katherine (6 October 2011). "Afghanistan marks 10 years since war started". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. ^ "UN: Taliban Responsible for 76% of Deaths in Afghanistan". The Weekly Standard. 2010-08-10.
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Scientists Working to Create Half-Human, Half-Animal Embryos

Scientists Working to Create Half-Human, Half-Animal Embryos

Researchers at the University of California Berkeley have recently been working on creating half-human, half-animal embryos. They have dubbed them "Chimeras." One aim of the study is to create hybrids to harvest and transplant human organs from animals into sick humans.

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  • University of California - Berkeley   The University ...
  • University of California - Berkeley
    The University of California, Berkeley (also referred to as Berkeley, UC Berkeley, California or simply Cal) is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. It is the flagship campus of the University of California system, one of three parts in the state's public higher education plan, which also includes the California State University system and the California Community Colleges System. It is considered by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as one of six university brands that lead in world reputation rankings in 2016 and is ranked third on the U.S. News' 2015 Best Global Universities rankings conducted in the U.S. and nearly 50 other countries. The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) also ranks the University of California, Berkeley fourth in the world overall, and first among public universities. It is broadly ranked first in science, third in engineering, and fifth in social sciences, with specific rankings of first in chemistry, first in physics, third in computer science, fourth in mathematics, and fourth in economics/business. The university is also well known for producing a high number of entrepreneurs. Established in 1868 as the result of the merger of the private College of California and the public Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College in Oakland, UC Berkeley is the oldest institution in the UC system and offers approximately 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. The University of California has been charged with providing both "classical" and "practical" education for the state's people. Cal co-manages three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories, including the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. Berkeley faculty, alumni, and researchers have won 72 Nobel Prizes (including 30 alumni Nobel laureates), 9 Wolf Prizes, 13 Fields Medals (including 3 alumni medalists), 22 Turing Awards, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 105 Olympic gold medals (47 silver and 33 bronze). To date, along with Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers have discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table (californium, seaborgium, berkelium, einsteinium, fermium, lawrencium, etc.) – more than any other university in the world. Lawrence Livermore Lab also discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements (113 to 118). Berkeley is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and continues to have very high research activity with $730.7 million in research and development expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2014.
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  • Chimera
    Chimera, chimaira, or chimaera may refer to: Chimera (mythology), a monstrous creature with parts from multiple animals Mount Chimaera, the region in Lycia that some believe was an inspiration for the myth
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Battle to Retake Fallujah from ISIS Begins

Battle to Retake Fallujah from ISIS Begins

Iraqi government forces battled Islamic State militants near Falluja early on Monday. The city's central districts were bombarded before Iraq's ground troops advanced to the enemy's stronghold. With the support of the US and coalition airstrikes, Iraqi troops, police, and Shiite militias were able to push ISIS militants back towards Fallujah.


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  • United States Military   The United States Armed Forc...
  • United States Military
    The United States Armed Forces[1] are the federal military forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. The United States has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military. The President of the United States is the military's overall head, and helps form military policy with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), a federal executive department, acting as the principal organ by which military policy is carried out. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and Cabinet member. The Defense Secretary is second in the military's chain of command, just below the President, and serves as the principal assistant to the President in all DoD-related matters. To coordinate military action with diplomacy, the President has an advisory National Security Council headed by a National Security Advisor. Both the President and Secretary of Defense are advised by a seven-member Joint Chiefs of Staff, which includes the head of each of the Defense Department's service branches as well as the chief of the National Guard Bureau. Leadership is provided by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Commandant of the Coast Guard is not a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. All of the branches work together during operations and joint missions, under the Unified Combatant Commands, under the authority of the Secretary of Defense with the exception of the Coast Guard, which is under the administration of the Department of Homeland Security and receives its operational orders from the Secretary of Homeland Security. However, the Coast Guard may be transferred to the Department of the Navy by the President or Congress during a time of war. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States, the two others being the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (under the Department of Health and Human Services) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps (under the Department of Commerce). From the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and not until the outbreak of World War II did a large standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U.S. military framework; the Act merged previously Cabinet-level Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment (renamed the Department of Defense in 1949), headed by the Secretary of Defense; and created the Department of the Air Force and National Security Council. The U.S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its manpower from a large pool of paid volunteers; although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1972. As of 2013, the United States spends about $554.2 billion annually to fund its military forces, and appropriates approximately $88.5 billion to fund Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the United States constitutes roughly 39 percent of the world's military expenditures. For the period 2010–14, SIPRI found that the United States was the world's biggest exporter of major arms, accounting for 31 per cent of global shares. The United States was also the world's eight largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The U.S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection thanks to its advanced and powerful equipment and its widespread deployment of force around the world.
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  • ISIL/ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant)

    The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL /ˈaɪsəl/; Arabic: الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام‎), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS /ˈaɪsɪs/), or simply as the Islamic State, is an Islamic extremist group controlling territory in Iraq and Syria, with limited territorial control in Libya and Nigeria. The group also operates or has affiliates in many other parts of the world, including Southeast Asia.

    The group is known in Arabic as ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fīl-ʿIrāq wash-Shām, leading to the acronym Da'ish, Da'eesh, or DAESH (داعش, Arabic pronunciation: [ˈdaːʕiʃ]), the Arabic equivalent of "ISIL". On 29 June 2014, the group proclaimed itself to be a worldwide caliphate, with Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi being named its caliph, and renamed itself "Islamic State" (الدولة الإسلامية, ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah). The new name and the idea of a caliphate has been widely criticised and condemned, with the United Nations, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups all refusing to acknowledge it. As caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide and that "the legality of all emirates, groups, states, and organisations, becomes null by the expansion of the khilāfah's [caliphate's] authority and arrival of its troops to their areas". Many Islamic and non-Islamic communities judge the group to be unrepresentative of Islam.

    The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated as a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Syria, Egypt, India, and Russia. Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL.

    The group originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. The group participated in the Iraqi insurgency, which had followed the March 2003 invasion of Iraq. In January 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council, which in October 2006 proclaimed the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI).

    Under the leadership of al-Baghdadi, the ISI sent delegates into Syria in August 2011 after the Syrian Civil War began in March 2011. This group named itself Jabhat an-Nuṣrah li-Ahli ash-Shām or al-Nusra Front, and established a large presence in Sunni-majority areas of Syria, within the governorates of Ar-Raqqah, Idlib, Deir ez-Zor, and Aleppo.

    In April 2013, al-Baghdadi announced the merger of his ISI with al-Nusra Front, and announced that the name of the reunited group was now the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). However, both Abu Mohammad al-Julani and Ayman al-Zawahiri, the leaders of al-Nusra and al-Qaeda respectively, rejected the merger. After an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda cut all ties with ISIL on 3 February 2014, citing its failure to consult and "notorious intransigence".

    ISIL is known for its well-funded web and social media propaganda, which includes Internet videos of beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists and aid workers, as well as the deliberate destruction of cultural heritage sites.

    The group gained notoriety after it drove the Iraqi government forces out of key western cities in Iraq. In Syria, it conducted ground attacks against both government forces and rebel factions in the Syrian Civil War. It gained those territories after an offensive, initiated in early 2014, which senior US military commanders and members of the US House Committee on Foreign Affairs saw as a re-emergence of Sunni insurgents and al-Qaeda militants. Iraq's territorial loss almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi government and prompted renewal of US military action in Iraq.

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  • Fallujah, Iraq
    Fallujah (Arabic: الفلوجة‎, al-Fallūjah Iraqi pronunciation: [el.fɐl.ˈluː.dʒɐ]) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly 69 kilometers (43 mi) west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. Fallujah dates from Babylonian times and was host to important Jewish academies for many centuries. The city grew from a small town in 1947 to a population of 326,471 inhabitants in 2010. Within Iraq, it is known as the "city of mosques" for the more than 200 mosques found in the city and the surrounding villages. In January 2014, a variety of sources reported that the city was controlled by al-Qaeda and/or its affiliate, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS; sometimes called ISIL). On a broadcast of National Public Radio's All Things Considered, Middle East analyst Kirk Sowell stated that while ISIS was occupying parts of the city, most of the ground lost was to the tribal militias who are opposed to both the Iraqi government and al-Qaeda. Speaking on condition of anonymity at the end of May 2014, an Anbar-based Iraqi government security officer told Human Rights Watch that ISIS was in control of several neighborhoods of southeast Fallujah as well as several northern and southern satellite communities, while local militias loyal to the Anbar Military Council controlled the central and northern neighborhoods of the city; however, Human Rights Watch stated that they could not confirm these claims.
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  • Counterterrorism
    Counter-terrorism (also called anti-terrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism. If terrorism is part of a broader insurgency, counter-terrorism may employ counter-insurgency measures. The United States Armed Forces use the term foreign internal defense for programs that support other countries in attempts to suppress insurgency, lawlessness, or subversion or to reduce the conditions under which these threats to security may develop.
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Morley Safer, Who helped Create CBS News, Has Passed Away

Morley Safer, Who helped Create CBS News, Has Passed Away

Morley Safer, a popular American television journalists of the past five decades, passed away at his home in Manhattan this Thursday at the age of 84. Although the cause of his death has not yet been reported, CBS says it is due to his declining health. Safter has worked with the broadcaster for over 50 years, finally retiring last week.

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  • Morley Safer   Morley Safer (November 8, 1931 – May 1...
  • Morley Safer
    Morley Safer (November 8, 1931 – May 19, 2016) was a Canadian American broadcast journalist, reporter, and correspondent for CBS News. He was best known for his long tenure on the newsmagazine 60 Minutes, whose cast he joined in December 1970, during the third season of the series. He was the longest-serving reporter on 60 Minutes, and over his 50-year tenure for CBS he won 12 Emmy Awards. He retired on May 15th, 2016, 4 days before his death at 84.
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  • Deaths in 2016

    This is a chronology of deaths in 2016. Names are reported under the date of death. Names under each date are reported in alphabetical order by family name or pseudonym. Deaths of non-humans are reported here if they first have their own Wikipedia article. Notable humans without an article can be listed for one month after death, to prompt creation of one.

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  • Journalism

    Journalism is gathering, processing, and dissemination of news and information related to the news to an audience. The word applies to both the method of inquiring for news and the literary style which is used to disseminate it.

    The media that journalism uses vary diversely and include: content published via newspapers and magazines (print), television and radio (broadcast), and their digital media versions — news websites and applications.

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  • CBS News
    CBS News is the news division of American television and radio network CBS. The current chairman is Jeff Fager, who is also the executive producer of 60 Minutes; while the current president of CBS New...{ name: 'read more', link:'en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CBS_News' }
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Google set to announce virtual agent: Google Home

Google set to announce virtual agent: Google Home

According to sources close to Google, on Wednesday, the company will introduce its voice-activated home device, called Google Home. The device is a virtual agent that can answer questions and carry out simple tasks. The device is expected to go on the market in the fall, and will likely compete with Amazon’s Echo, which has already sold an estimated three million units.

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  • Google   Google is an American multinational corporat...
  • Google

    Google is an American multinational corporation specializing in Internet-related services and products. These include online advertising technologies, search, cloud computing, and software. Most of it...{ name: 'read more', link:'en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google' }

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  • Virtual agent
    A virtual agent may refer to: Intelligent agent, in artificial intelligence Virtual assistant, a person offering remote service Virtual character (disambiguation) Virtual friend (disambiguation) A "bot," i.e. a software robot.
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United States Senate passes 9/11 Bill

United States Senate passes 9/11 Bill

The United States Senate has passed a bill that would allow the families of 9/11 victims to sue the Saudi government. The Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act (JASTA) has moved to the House of Representatives. Saudi Arabia threatened that if the bill gets enacted, they will withdraw US investments. President Barack Obama has said he will veto the bill, but senators are confident he'd be overruled. If the legislation passes the victims could sue any member of the government of Saudi Arabia thought to have a part in it. 15 of the 19 9/11 hijackers were Saudi citizens.

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  • September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks   The September...
  • September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks
    The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks consisted of suicide attacks used to target symbolic U.S. landmarks. Four passenger airliners—which all departed from airports on the U.S. East Coast bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists to be flown into buildings. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed, with debris and the resulting fires causing partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense) in Arlington County, Virginia, leading to a partial collapse in the Pentagon's western side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, initially was steered toward Washington, D.C., but crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers. In total, the attacks claimed the lives of 2,996 people (including the 19 hijackers) and caused at least $10 billion in property and infrastructure damage and $3 trillion in total costs. It was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively. Suspicion for the attack quickly fell on Al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had harbored al-Qaeda. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although al-Qaeda's leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks. Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U.S. support of Israel, the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. Having evaded capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located and killed by members of the U.S. military in May 2011. The destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure caused serious damage to the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, closing Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U.S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings, evacuations, and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was officially opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County, Virginia, and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
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  • Saudi Arabia-United States relations

    Bilateral relations between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States of America began in 1933 when full diplomatic relations were established. Despite the differences between the two countries—an ultraconservative Islamic absolute monarchy, and a secular, democratic republic—the two countries have been allies. In recent years, the two countries have occasionally been described as having a Special Relationship with one another. U.S. presidents, George W. Bush and current president, Barack Obama have strong and close relations with senior members of the Saudi Royal Family.

    Since World War II, the two countries have been allied in opposition to Communism, in support of stable oil prices, stability in the oil fields and oil shipping of the Persian Gulf, and stability in the economies of Western countries where Saudi's have invested. In particular the two countries were allies against the Soviets in the Afghanistan and in the expulsion of Iraq from Kuwait in 1991. The two countries have been in opposition over the state of Israel, the embargo of US and its allies by Saudi Arabia and other Middle East oil exporters during the 1973 oil crisis which raised oil prices considerably, the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the US which Saudi Arabia opposed, aspects of the "War on Terror", and what many in the US see as pernicious influence of Saudi Arabia after the September 11 attacks.

    In a BBC World Service Poll conducted between October 2005 and January 2006, Saudi Arabian public opinion is sharply divided on the United States, with 38% viewing U.S. influence positively and 38% viewing U.S. influence negatively. As of 2012, Saudi Arabian students form the 4th largest group of international students studying in the United States, representing 3.5% of all foreigners pursuing higher education in America. A December 2013 poll found 57% of Americans polled had an unfavorable view of Saudi Arabia and 27% favorable, the least favorable of 12 countries the poll inquired about.

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Hawaii sues Takata over faulty air bags

Hawaii sues Takata over faulty air bags

On Friday, Hawaii sued the Japanese auto parts maker Takata over its faulty airbags. Hawaii, which became the first state to sue the Takata, claimed that the company covered up a deadly airbag defect and demanded a $10,000 penalty for every affected car owner in the state. Hawaii says that its residents were at especially high risk of injury from the faulty air bags because high temperatures and humidity have been linked to Takata airbag malfunctions. The state argued that its climate—hot and humid—put its residents at higher risk of injury.

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  • Hawaii  
  • Hawaii
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  • Takata Corporation
    Takata Corporation (タカタ株式会社, Takata Kabushiki Gaisha) is an automotive parts company based in Japan. The company has production facilities on four continents, with its European headquarters located in Germany, where it also has nine production facilities. It had a turnover of around four billion euros in 2008.
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  • Takata
    Takata can refer to: Takata District, Hiroshima, former district located in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan Takata, Fukuoka was a town located in Miike District, Fukuoka, Japan. Rikuzen-Takata Station, train station located on the JR Ōfunato Line in Rikuzen-Takata, Iwate, Japan Takata Corporation producer of automotive parts for cars.
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New evidence shows humans and mastodons coexisted in Florida

New evidence shows humans and mastodons coexisted in Florida

New evidence obtained by archaeologists and researchers at a sinkhole in the Aucilla River in northern Florida shows that humans and mastodons coexisted. The sinkhole has been a well known archaeological site for decades, but until recently, remnants of stone tools and fossilized mastodon bones and dung could not be precisely correlated. The new discovery of a stone knife fragment allowed for precise dating that shows definitively that paleoindians (the name given the first people to come to North America) lived in the area at the same time as mastodons.

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  • Aucilla River   The Aucilla River rises close to Thom...
  • Aucilla River
    The Aucilla River rises close to Thomasville, Georgia, USA, and passes through the Big Bend region of Florida, emptying into the Gulf of Mexico at Apalachee Bay. The river is 89 miles (143 km) long and has a drainage basin of 747 square miles (1,930 km2). The Wacissa River is a tributary. In Florida, the Aucilla River forms the eastern border of Jefferson County, separating it from Madison County on the northern part, and from Taylor County to the south. The lower part of the river disappears underground and reappears several times, and is known as the Aucilla River Sinks. The Aucilla River is a rich source of late Pleistocene and early Holocene animal bones and human artifacts, and is the subject of the Aucilla River Prehistory Project, which includes the Page-Ladson prehistory site. During the first Spanish period in Florida the Aucilla River was the boundary between the Apalachee people and the Timucua-speaking Yustaga (or Uzachile) people.
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  • Paleoindians
    Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period. The prefix "paleo-" comes from the Greek adjective palaios (παλαιός), meaning "old" or "ancient." The term "Paleo-Indians" applies specifically to the lithic period in the Western Hemisphere and is distinct from the term "Paleolithic". Evidence suggests big-animal hunters crossed the Bering Strait from Eurasia into North America over a land and ice bridge (Beringia), that existed between 45,000-12,000 BCE (47,000-14,000 BP). Small isolated groups of hunter-gatherers migrated alongside herds of large herbivores far into Alaska. From 16,500-13,500 BCE (18,500-15,500 BP), ice-free corridors developed along the Pacific coast and valleys of North America. This allowed animals, followed by humans, to migrate south into the interior. The people went on foot or used primitive boats along the coastline. The precise dates and routes of the peopling of the New World are subject to ongoing debate. Stone tools, particularly projectile points and scrapers, are the primary evidence of the earliest human activity in the Americas. Crafted lithic flaked tools are used by archaeologists and anthropologists to classify cultural periods. Scientific evidence links Indigenous Americans to Asian peoples, specifically eastern Siberian populations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas have been linked to Siberian populations by linguistic factors, the distribution of blood types, and in genetic composition as reflected by molecular data, such as DNA. There is evidence for at least two separate migrations. Between 8000-7000 BCE (10,000-9,000 years BP) the climate stabilized, leading to a rise in population and lithic technology advances, resulting in more sedentary lifestyle.
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  • Mastodons
    Mastodons (Greek: μαστός "breast" and ὀδούς, "tooth") are any species of extinct mammutid proboscideans in the genus Mammut, distantly related to elephants, that inhabited North and Central America during the late Miocene or late Pliocene up to their extinction at the end of the Pleistocene 10,000 to 11,000 years ago. Mastodons lived in herds and were predominantly forest dwelling animals that fed on a mixed diet obtained by browsing and grazing with a seasonal preference for browsing, similar to living elephants. M. americanum, the American mastodon, is the youngest and best-known species of the genus. They disappeared from North America as part of a mass extinction of most of the Pleistocene megafauna, widely presumed to have been related to overexploitation by Clovis hunters, and possibly also to climate change.
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  • Florida

    Florida /ˈflɒrɪdə/ is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd most extensive, the 3rd most populous, and the 8th most densely populated of the 50 United States. Jacksonville is the most populous city in Florida, and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is the eighth-largest metropolitan area in the United States. Tallahassee is the state capital.

    Much of Florida is a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Straits of Florida. Its geography is notable for a coastline, omnipresent water and the threat of hurricanes. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States, encompassing approximately 1,350 miles (2,170 km), and is the only state that borders both the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south. Some of its most iconic animals, such as the American alligator, American crocodile, Florida panther and the manatee, can be found in the Everglades National Park.

    Since the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León – who named it La Florida ([la floˈɾiða] "The Flowery") upon landing there during the Easter season, Pascua Florida – Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845. It was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Indians, and racial segregation after the American Civil War.

    Today, Florida is distinguished by its large Hispanic community and high population growth, as well as its increasing environmental concerns. Its economy relies mainly on tourism, agriculture, and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century. Florida is also known for its amusement parks, the production of oranges and the Kennedy Space Center.

    Florida culture is a reflection of influences and multiple inheritance; Native American, European American, Hispanic and African American heritages can be found in the architecture and cuisine. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, tennis, auto racing and water sports.

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Missouri lawmakers pass major gun rights expansion

On Friday, Missouri lawmakers passed an extensive expansion of gun rights in the state. The new laws would allow people to carry concealed guns without requiring permits and increase the right to stand and fight against perceived threats. The legislation will now go to Governor Jay Nixon.

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  • Missouri   Missouri (see pronunciations) is a state l...
  • Missouri

    Missouri (see pronunciations) is a state located in the Midwestern United States. It is the 21st most extensive, and the 18th most populous of the fifty states. The state comprises 114 counties, and the independent city of St. Louis.

    The four largest urban areas in order of population are: St. Louis, Kansas City, Springfield, and Columbia, as defined by the US 2010 census. The mean center of the United States population at the 2010 census was at the town of Plato in Texas County. The state's capital is Jefferson City. The land that is now Missouri was acquired from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase and became known as the Missouri Territory. Part of this territory was admitted into the union as the 24th state on August 10, 1821.

    Missouri's geography is highly varied. The northern part of the state lies in dissected till plains, while the southern portion lies in the Ozark Mountains (a dissected plateau), with the Missouri River dividing the regions. The state lies at the intersection of the three greatest rivers of North America, with the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers near St. Louis, and the confluence of the Ohio River with the Mississippi north of the Bootheel. The starting points for the Pony Express, Santa Fe Trail, and Oregon Trail were all located in Missouri.

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  • Gun Rights
    Gun rights include the right to keep and bear arms, to use firearms in self-defense, and to produce and sell firearms and ammunition. In many jurisdictions, felons automatically lose certain rights, including gun rights. Those rights may be restored automatically or by petition.
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  • Gun Control
    This is a redirect from a title with another method of capitalisation. It leads to the title in accordance with the Wikipedia naming conventions for capitalisation, or it leads to a title that is associated in some way with the conventional capitalisation of this redirect title. This may help writing, searching and international language issues. For more information follow the category link. If this redirect is an incorrect capitalization (a typo), then it is made available to aid searches, so pages that use this link should be updated to link directly to the target. Use this rcat to tag only mainspace redirects; when other capitalisations are in different namespaces, use {{R from modification}} instead.
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Ukrainian Jamala wins Eurovision Song Contest

Ukrainian Jamala wins Eurovision Song Contest

Ukrainian singer Jamala won the Eurovision Song Contest in Stockholm on Saturday. Jamala preformed a ballad titled “1944” that caused some controversy in the competition over potential references to political tension. Eurovision’s rules ban explicitly political songs. Jamala is an ethnic Tatar, and her song was considered by some to reference Soviet violence against the group in Crimea during World War II. The song included the lyrics: “They kill you all and say, ‘We’re not guilty.” The lyrics prompted some calls for the singer to be disqualified from the competition.

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  • Eurovision Song Contest   The Eurovision Song Contest...
  • Eurovision Song Contest
    The Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often shortened to Eurovision, is the longest-running annual international TV song competition, held, primarily, among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) since 1956. The competition was based upon the existing Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy since 1951. Each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio and then casts votes for the other countries' songs to determine the most popular song in the competition. The contest has been broadcast every year for sixty years, since its inauguration in 1956, and is one of the longest-running television programmes in the world. It is also one of the most watched non-sporting events in the world, with audience figures having been quoted in recent years as anything between 100 million and 600 million internationally. Eurovision has also been broadcast outside Europe to several countries that do not compete, such as the USA, Canada, New Zealand, and China. An exception was made in 2015, when Australia was allowed to compete as a guest entrant as part of the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the event. In November 2015, the EBU announced that Australia was effected as participant, after the 2015 success. Since 2000, the contest has also been broadcast over the Internet, via the Eurovision website. Winning the Eurovision Song Contest provides a short-term boost to the winning artists' career, but rarely results in long-term success. Notable exceptions are ABBA (winner in 1974 for Sweden), Bucks Fizz (winner in 1981 for the United Kingdom) and Céline Dion (winner in 1988 for Switzerland), all of whom launched successful worldwide careers after their wins. Ireland holds the record for the highest number of wins, having won the contest seven times—including four times in five years in 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1996. The highest scoring winner is Jamala of Ukraine who won the 2016 contest in Stockholm, Sweden with 534 points. This was, however, achieved under a new scoring system, and it is unclear whether she would have surpassed the previous record (the 387 points achieved by Alexander Rybak of Norway in 2009) under the system in use between 1975 and 2015. The latest winner of the Eurovision Song Contest is Jamala of Ukraine, who won the 2016 contest in Stockholm, Sweden, with the song "1944".
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  • EuroVision
    This is a redirect from a modification of the target's title; for example, its words are rearranged, or punctuation in the name is changed. In cases of modification from distinctly longer or shorter names, please use {{R from long name}} or {{R from short name}}, respectively. For more information follow the category link. Use this rcat instead of {{R from other capitalisation}} and {{R from plural}} in namespaces other than mainspace for those types of modification.
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Venezuela President Declares State of Emergency

Venezuela President Declares State of Emergency

A state of emergency has been declared in Venezuela. The country is facing soaring inflation, a shrinking economy, chronic food shortages, and major electicity cuts. Protests have occupied the capital of Caracas Saturday, as pro- and anti-government activists took to the street to add their voices to President Nicolas Maduro's latest attempt to exert control and hold onto power.

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  • Venezuela   Venezuela (/ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə/ VEN-ə-ZWAYL-ə, ...
  • Venezuela
    Venezuela (/ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə/ VEN-ə-ZWAYL-ə, Spanish pronunciation: [be.neˈswela]), officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela [reˈpu.βlika βoliβaˈ...{ name: 'read more', link:'en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venezuela' }
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  • State Of Emergency
    A government or division of government (i.e. on a municipal, provincial/state level) may declare that their area is in a state of emergency. This means that the government can suspend and/or change some functions of the executive, the legislative and/or the judiciary during this period of time. It alerts citizens to change their normal behavior and orders government agencies to implement emergency plans. A government can declare a state of emergency during a time of natural or human-made disaster, during a period of civil unrest, or following a declaration of war or situation of international/internal armed conflict. Justitium is its equivalent in Roman law, where Senate could put forward senatus consultum ultimum. It can also be used as a rationale (or pretext) for suspending rights and freedoms guaranteed under a country's constitution or basic law. The procedure for and legality of doing so varies by country.
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Theranos looks to restore confidence

Theranos looks to restore confidence

Theranos, a Silicon Valley blood-testing company that has recently come under scrutiny for its technology, is replacing its chief operating officer in an effort to restore confidence. The company is also adding a former senior Amgen executive to the board. Once valued at $9 billion, Theranos is not under criminal investigation and intense regulatory scrutiny for its claim that it has developed a revolutionary laboratory business that allows for simplified blood testing that costs only a fraction of conventional methods.

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  • Theranos   Theranos is a privately held health-tech...
  • Theranos

    Theranos is a privately held health-technology and medical-laboratory-services company based in Palo Alto, California that has developed novel approaches for laboratory diagnostic tests using blood. The company's blood-testing platform uses a few drops of blood obtained via a finger-stick rather than vials of blood obtained via traditional venipuncture, and utilizes microfluidics technology.

    ^

    ^ "Theranos". Manta.com.

    ^ Rago, Joseph (2013-09-08). "Elizabeth Holmes: The Breakthrough of Instant Diagnosis". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-09-16.

    ^ Scott, Cameron (8 November 2013). "Small, fast and cheap, Theranos is the poster child of med tech — and it's in Walgreen's". Singularity Hub. Retrieved 9 March 2014.

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Hundreds evacuated from Bath, England after unexploded munitions are discovered

Hundreds evacuated from Bath, England after unexploded munitions are discovered

Hundreds of residents were evacuated from Bath, England after unexploded munitions believed to be left over from World War II were discovered under a former school playground. On Friday, authorities set up a perimeter around the site and closed many of the roads surrounding it. Authorities plan to place about 275 tons of sand around the munitions and remove it to a location where a controlled explosion can be carried out to dispose of the munitions.

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  • Bath, England   Bath (/ˈbɑːθ/ or /ˈbæθ/; Latin: Aquae...
  • Bath, England
    Bath (/ˈbɑːθ/ or /ˈbæθ/; Latin: Aquae Sulis, Welsh: Caerfaddon), is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles (156 km) west of London and 11 miles (18 km) south-east of Bristol. The city became a World Heritage Site in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin name Aquae Sulis ("the waters of Sulis") c. AD 60 when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known even before then. Bath Abbey was founded in the 7th century and became a religious centre; the building was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, and Bath became popular as a spa town in the Georgian era. Georgian architecture, crafted from Bath stone, includes the Royal Crescent, Circus, Pump Room and Assembly Rooms where Beau Nash presided over the city's social life from 1705 until his death in 1761. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, and in the 18th century the city became fashionable and the population grew. Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century. Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II. The city has software, publishing and service-oriented industries. Theatres, museums, and other cultural and sporting venues have helped to make it a major centre for tourism with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, Victoria Art Gallery, Museum of East Asian Art, and the Holburne Museum. The city has two universities: the University of Bath and Bath Spa University, with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F.C. while TeamBath is the umbrella name for all of the University of Bath sports teams. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, and, following Avon's abolition in 1996, has been the principal centre of Bath and North East Somerset.
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  • World War II

    World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War (after the recent Great War), was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. In a state of "total war", the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust (during which approximately 11 million people were killed) and the strategic bombing of industrial and population centres (during which approximately one million people were killed, including the use of two nuclear weapons in combat), it resulted in an estimated 50 million to 85 million fatalities. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history.

    The Empire of Japan aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific and was already at war with the Republic of China in 1937, but the world war is generally said to have begun on 1 September 1939 with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom. From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. The United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth were the only Allied forces continuing the fight against the European Axis powers, with campaigns in North Africa and the Horn of Africa as well as the long-running Battle of the Atlantic. In June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history, which trapped the major part of the Axis' military forces into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European territories in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.

    The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, and Germany was defeated in North Africa and then, decisively, at Stalingrad in the Soviet Union. In 1943, with a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasion of Italy which brought about Italian surrender, and Allied victories in the Pacific, the Axis lost the initiative and undertook strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands.

    The war in Europe ended with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet and Polish troops and the subsequent German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945. Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, and the Soviet Union's declaration of war on Japan and invasion of Manchuria, Japan surrendered on 15 August 1945. Thus ended the war in Asia, and the final destruction of the Axis bloc.

    World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world. The United Nations (UN) was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, and France—became the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia and Africa began. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and to create a common identity.

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FCC moves to restrict 'robocalls'

The Federal Communications Commission has proposed new regulations in response to a recent law that will allow an increase in the number of automated calls and texts that can be sent to cell phones by loan services and debt collectors. The FCC has called for a restriction on the number of text messages and prerecorded calls made to without the borrowers’ permission to three calls a month. The Commission has also suggested that debt collectors must inform borrowers of their right to request that the calls stop. The new rules will affect millions of Americans with student loans.

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  • Student loans   A student loan is designed to help st...
  • Student loans
    A student loan is designed to help students pay for university tuition, books, and living expenses. It may differ from other types of loans in that the interest rate may be substantially lower and the repayment schedule may be deferred while the student is still in school. It also differs in many countries in the strict laws regulating renegotiating and bankruptcy.
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  • Robocalls
    A robocall is a phone call that uses a computerized autodialer to deliver a pre-recorded message, as if from a robot. Robocalls are often associated with political and telemarketing phone campaigns, but can also be used for public-service or emergency announcements. Some robocalls use personalized audio messages to simulate an actual personal phone call.
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  • Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
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Giant fossilized whale tooth discovered in Australia

Giant fossilized whale tooth discovered in Australia

Murray Orr, an amateur fossil hunter, discovered an ancient tooth from an extinct sperm whale in Australia in February. The tooth is massive, measuring about a foot long—about two times the size of any living sperm whale’s tooth. The fossil is the first of its kind ever found in Australia, and probably belonged to a relative of an extinct group of marine animals called Livyatan melvillei. Dr. Erich Fitzgerald, a paleontologist at the Museum Victoria, said that the tooth likely belonged to an animal about 60 feet long and 88,000 pounds.

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  • Livyatan melvillei   Livyatan melvillei is an extinct...
  • Livyatan melvillei
    Livyatan melvillei is an extinct species of physeteroid whale, similar in size to the modern sperm whale. It lived during the Serravallian stage of the Miocene epoch, approximately 12 to 13 million years ago.
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  • Sperm Whale
    The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), or cachalot, is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator. It is the only living member of genus Physeter, and one of three extant species in the sperm whale family, along with the pygmy sperm whale and dwarf sperm whale of the genus Kogia. Mature males average 16 metres (52 ft) in length but some may reach 20.5 metres (67 ft), with the head representing up to one-third of the animal's length. Plunging to 2,250 metres (7,380 ft), it is the second deepest diving mammal, following only the Cuvier's beaked whale. The sperm whale's clicking vocalization, a form of echolocation and communication, may be as loud as 230 decibels (re 1 µPa at 1 m) underwater. It has the largest brain of any animal on Earth, more than five times heavier than a human's. Sperm whales can live for more than 60 years. The sperm whale can be found anywhere in the open ocean. Females and young males live together in groups while mature males live solitary lives outside of the mating season. The females cooperate to protect and nurse their young. Females give birth every four to twenty years, and care for the calves for more than a decade. A mature sperm whale has few natural predators. Calves and weakened adults are taken by pods of orcas. From the early eighteenth century through the late 20th, the species was a prime target of whalers. The head of the whale contains a liquid wax called spermaceti, from which the whale derives its name. Spermaceti was used in lubricants, oil lamps, and candles. Ambergris, a waste product from its digestive system, is still used as a fixative in perfumes. Occasionally the sperm whale's great size allowed it to defend itself effectively against whalers. The species is now protected by a whaling moratorium, and is currently listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN).
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  • Fossils
    Fossils (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past. The totality of fossils, both discovered and undiscovered, and their placement in fossiliferous (fossil-containing) rock formations and sedimentary layers (strata) is known as the fossil record. The study of fossils across geological time, how they were formed, and the evolutionary relationships between taxa (phylogeny) are some of the most important functions of the science of paleontology. Such a preserved specimen is called a "fossil" if it is older than some minimum age, most often the arbitrary date of 10,000 years. Hence, fossils range in age from the youngest at the start of the Holocene Epoch to the oldest from the Archaean Eon, up to 3.48 billion years old. The observation that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led early geologists to recognize a geological timescale in the 19th century. The development of radiometric dating techniques in the early 20th century allowed geologists to determine the numerical or "absolute" age of the various strata and thereby the included fossils. Like extant organisms, fossils vary in size from microscopic, even single bacterial cells one micrometer in diameter, to gigantic, such as dinosaurs and trees many meters long and weighing many tons. A fossil normally preserves only a portion of the deceased organism, usually that portion that was partially mineralized during life, such as the bones and teeth of vertebrates, or the chitinous or calcareous exoskeletons of invertebrates. Fossils may also consist of the marks left behind by the organism while it was alive, such as animal tracks or feces (coprolites). These types of fossil are called trace fossils (or ichnofossils), as opposed to body fossils. Finally, past life leaves some markers that cannot be seen but can be detected in the form of biochemical signals; these are known as chemofossils or biosignatures.
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Zimmerman Gun Auctions to $65M

Zimmerman Gun Auctions to $65M

George Zimmerman auctioned his 9 mm Kel-Tec PF-9 pistol, which was used to kill Trayvon Martin. On Friday, the bid rose up to 65 million dollars. What lead to the shocking raise in the gun's price turned out to be internet trolls, some of whom deleted their account.

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  • Auction   An auction is a process of buying and selli...
  • Auction
    An auction is a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids, and then selling the item to the highest bidder. The open ascending price auction is arguably the most common form of auction in use today. Participants bid openly against one another, with each subsequent bid required to be higher than the previous bid. An auctioneer may announce prices, bidders may call out their bids themselves (or have a proxy call out a bid on their behalf), or bids may be submitted electronically with the highest current bid publicly displayed. In a Dutch auction, the auctioneer begins with a high asking price for some quantity of like items; the price is lowered until a participant is willing to accept the auctioneer's price for some quantity of the goods in the lot or until the seller's reserve price is met. While auctions are most associated in the public imagination with the sale of antiques, paintings, rare collectibles and expensive wines, auctions are also used for commodities, livestock, radio spectrum and used cars. In economic theory, an auction may refer to any mechanism or set of trading rules for exchange.
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  • Trayvon Martin
    Trayvon Benjamin Martin (February 5, 1995 – February 26, 2012) was a 17-year-old African American from Miami Gardens, Florida, who was fatally shot by George Zimmerman, a neighborhood watch volunteer, in Sanford, Florida. Martin had gone with his father on a visit to the father's fiancée at her townhouse at The Retreat at Twin Lakes in Sanford. On the evening of February 26, Martin went to a convenience store and purchased candy and juice. As Martin returned from the store, he walked through a neighborhood that had been victimized by robberies several times that year. Zimmerman, a member of the community watch, spotted him and called the Sanford Police to report him. Zimmerman then followed Martin (despite being told not to do so) on foot to ensure that Martin would not try to steal anything from the neighborhood. Moments later, there was an altercation between the two individuals in which Martin was shot in the chest. Zimmerman, who was injured in the altercation, was not charged at the time of the shooting by the Sanford Police, who said that there was no evidence to refute his claim of self-defense and that Florida's stand your ground law prohibited law-enforcement officials from arresting or charging him. Zimmerman was eventually charged and tried in Martin's death and a jury acquitted Zimmerman of second-degree murder and of manslaughter in July 2013. Martin was born in Miami, Florida, and attended both Norland Middle School and Highland Oaks Middle School, in north Miami-Dade County, Florida. He attended Miami Carol City High School in Miami Gardens for his freshman and sophomore years, and at the time of the shooting was a junior at Dr. Michael M. Krop High School in north Miami-Dade. Following Martin's death, rallies, marches and protests were held across the nation. In March 2012, hundreds of students at his high school held a walkout in support of him. An online petition calling for a full investigation and prosecution of Zimmerman garnered 2.2 million signatures. The media coverage surrounding Martin's death was greater than that of the 2012 presidential race, which was underway at the time. A national debate about racial profiling and stand your ground laws ensued, and the governor of Florida appointed a task force to examine the state's self-defense laws. Martin's life was scrutinized by the media and bloggers who examined the digital footprint he had left behind. On social media, the name "Trayvon" was tweeted (mentioned in posts to Twitter web feeds by users of the service) more than two million times in the 30 days following the shooting. More than 1,000 people attended the viewing of his remains the day before his funeral, which was held on March 3, 2012 in Miami, Florida. He was buried in Dade-Memorial Park (North), in Miami. A memorial was dedicated to Martin at the Goldsboro Westside Historical Museum, a black history museum in Sanford in July 2013.
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  • George Zimmerman
    George Michael Zimmerman (born October 5, 1983) is an American known for fatally shooting Trayvon Martin on February 26, 2012, in Sanford, Florida. On July 13, 2013, his trial for second-degree murder...{ name: 'read more', link:'en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Zimmerman' }
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Fifa appoints 1st Female Secretary General

Fifa appoints 1st Female Secretary General

Fatma Samba Diouf Samoura has been appointed Fifa's first female Secretary General. Samoura has 21 years of experience working with the United Nations and will assume her Secretary General position in June.

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  • FIFA   The Fédération Internationale de Football Asso...
  • FIFA

    The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA /ˈfiːfə/; English: International Federation of Association Football or International Federation of Soccer) is the international governing body of association football (soccer), futsal and beach soccer. FIFA is responsible for the organization of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930 and the Women's World Cup which commenced in 1991.

    FIFA was founded in 1904 to oversee international competition among the national associations of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, membership now comprises 209 national associations. Member countries must each also be members of one of the six regional confederations into which the world is divided: Africa, Asia, Europe, North & Central America and the Caribbean, Oceania and South America.

    Although FIFA does not control the rules of football, it is responsible for both the organisation of a number of tournaments and their promotion, which generate revenue from sponsorship. In 2013, FIFA had revenues of over 1.3 billion U.S. dollars, for a net profit of 72 million, and had cash reserves over 1.4 billion U.S. dollars.

    Reports by investigative journalists have linked the FIFA leadership with rapaciousness, corruption, and bribery, and alleged that vote rigging was involved in the election of president Sepp Blatter. FIFA's choice to award the 2018 and 2022 World Cups to Russia and Qatar, respectively, have been widely criticised, with allegations of vote buying.

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Islamic State Declares State of Emergency in Raqqa

Islamic State Declares State of Emergency in Raqqa

A US military official stated that ISIS has declared a state of emergency in Raqqa. Pentagon officials will be investigating the declaration to gain more insight on what it means.

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  • ISIL/ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant)  
  • ISIL/ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant)

    The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL /ˈaɪsəl/; Arabic: الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام‎), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS /ˈaɪsɪs/), or simply as the Islamic State, is an Islamic extremist group controlling territory in Iraq and Syria, with limited territorial control in Libya and Nigeria. The group also operates or has affiliates in many other parts of the world, including Southeast Asia.

    The group is known in Arabic as ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fīl-ʿIrāq wash-Shām, leading to the acronym Da'ish, Da'eesh, or DAESH (داعش, Arabic pronunciation: [ˈdaːʕiʃ]), the Arabic equivalent of "ISIL". On 29 June 2014, the group proclaimed itself to be a worldwide caliphate, with Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi being named its caliph, and renamed itself "Islamic State" (الدولة الإسلامية, ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah). The new name and the idea of a caliphate has been widely criticised and condemned, with the United Nations, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups all refusing to acknowledge it. As caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide and that "the legality of all emirates, groups, states, and organisations, becomes null by the expansion of the khilāfah's [caliphate's] authority and arrival of its troops to their areas". Many Islamic and non-Islamic communities judge the group to be unrepresentative of Islam.

    The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated as a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Syria, Egypt, India, and Russia. Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL.

    The group originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. The group participated in the Iraqi insurgency, which had followed the March 2003 invasion of Iraq. In January 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council, which in October 2006 proclaimed the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI).

    Under the leadership of al-Baghdadi, the ISI sent delegates into Syria in August 2011 after the Syrian Civil War began in March 2011. This group named itself Jabhat an-Nuṣrah li-Ahli ash-Shām or al-Nusra Front, and established a large presence in Sunni-majority areas of Syria, within the governorates of Ar-Raqqah, Idlib, Deir ez-Zor, and Aleppo.

    In April 2013, al-Baghdadi announced the merger of his ISI with al-Nusra Front, and announced that the name of the reunited group was now the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). However, both Abu Mohammad al-Julani and Ayman al-Zawahiri, the leaders of al-Nusra and al-Qaeda respectively, rejected the merger. After an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda cut all ties with ISIL on 3 February 2014, citing its failure to consult and "notorious intransigence".

    ISIL is known for its well-funded web and social media propaganda, which includes Internet videos of beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists and aid workers, as well as the deliberate destruction of cultural heritage sites.

    The group gained notoriety after it drove the Iraqi government forces out of key western cities in Iraq. In Syria, it conducted ground attacks against both government forces and rebel factions in the Syrian Civil War. It gained those territories after an offensive, initiated in early 2014, which senior US military commanders and members of the US House Committee on Foreign Affairs saw as a re-emergence of Sunni insurgents and al-Qaeda militants. Iraq's territorial loss almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi government and prompted renewal of US military action in Iraq.

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  • Raqqa, Syria

    Al-Raqqah (Arabic: الرقة‎ ar-Raqqah), also called Rakka, Raqqa and Ar-Raqqah, is a city in Syria located on the north bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 kilometres (99 miles) east of Aleppo. It is located 40 kilometres (25 miles) east of the Tabqa Dam, Syria's largest dam. The city was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate between 796 and 809 under the reign of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. With a population of 220,488 based on the 2004 official census, al-Raqqah was the sixth largest city in Syria.

    During the Syrian Civil War, the city was captured by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, which has made it its headquarters in Syria. As a result, the city has been hit by Syrian government, Russian, U.S., French, Jordanian and other Arab nation airstrikes. Most non-Sunni structures in the city have been destroyed by ISIL, most notably the Shi'ite Uwais al-Qarni Mosque.

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Hawaii biodiesel plant becomes first US-based plant to receive certification of sustainability

Hawaii biodiesel plant becomes first US-based plant to receive certification of sustainability

After an audit by the Sustainable Biodiesel Alliance, a nonprofit industry group, a plant that produces biodiesel fuel in Hawaii became the first US-based biodiesel plant to receive a certification of sustainability. The plant, owned by Pacific Biodiesel, transforms waste cooking oils, animal fats, fruits and seeds into biodiesel fuel. It was designed with the intention of conserving water and energy as well as reducing environmental impacts.

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  • BioDiesel   Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil - or ...
  • BioDiesel
    Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil - or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters. Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, soybean oil, animal fat (tallow)) with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters. Biodiesel is meant to be used in standard diesel engines and is thus distinct from the vegetable and waste oils used to fuel converted diesel engines. Biodiesel can be used alone, or blended with petrodiesel in any proportions. Biodiesel blends can also be used as heating oil. The National Biodiesel Board (USA) also has a technical definition of "biodiesel" as a mono-alkyl ester.
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  • Keaau, Hawaii
    Keaau (also written as Keaʻau) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Hawaii County, Hawaii, United States located in the District of Puna. The population was 2,010 at the 2000 census. The population increased by 12.1% to 2,253 at the 2010 census.
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  • sustainability
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