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Mullah Akhtar Mansour to be Replaced by New Taliban Leader

Mullah Akhtar Mansour to be Replaced by New Taliban Leader

The Afghan Taliban have announced a new head to replace Mullah Akhtar Mansour, who was killed in a US drone strike. Mawlawi Haibatullah Akhundzada, who is in his 50s, is the newly elected Taliban leader. According to a founding member of the group, Sayed Mohammad Akbar Agha, Akhundzada is principally known as a religious teacher and scholar among the Taliban.

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  • Taliban   The Taliban (Pashto: طالبان‎ ṭālibān "stude...
  • Taliban
    The Taliban (Pashto: طالبان‎ ṭālibān "students"), alternately spelled Taleban, is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan. It spread throughout Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. However, it gained diplomatic recognition from only three states: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Mohammed Omar is the founder and has been serving as the spiritual leader of the Taliban since its foundation in 1994. While in power, it enforced a strict interpretation of Sharia, or Islamic law, an interpretation of which leading Muslims have been highly critical. The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women. The majority of the Taliban are made up of Afghan Pashtun tribesmen. The Taliban's leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism, and many also strictly follow the social and cultural norm called Pashtunwali. From 1995 to 2001, the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence and military are widely alleged by the international community to have provided support to the Taliban. Their connections are possibly through Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, a terrorist group founded by Sami ul Haq. Pakistan is accused by many international officials of continuing to support the Taliban; Pakistan states that it dropped all support for the group after 9/11. Al-Qaeda also supported the Taliban with regiments of imported fighters from Arab countries and Central Asia. Saudi Arabia provided financial support. The Taliban and their allies committed massacres against Afghan civilians, denied UN food supplies to 160,000 starving civilians and conducted a policy of scorched earth, burning vast areas of fertile land and destroying tens of thousands of homes during their rule from 1996 to 2001. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced to flee to United Front-controlled territory, Pakistan, and Iran. After the attacks of September 11, 2001, the Taliban were overthrown by the American-led invasion of Afghanistan. Later it regrouped as an insurgency movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). The Taliban have been accused of using terrorism as a specific tactic to further their ideological and political goals. According to the United Nations, the Taliban and their allies were responsible for 75% of Afghan civilian casualties in 2010, 80% in 2011, and 80% in 2012. ^ a b http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/347009"To rule Afghanistan and impose the groups interpretation of Islamic law which includes influences of Deobandi fundamentalism and Pashtunwali culture"Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/347009#ixzz3BqDqscCB ^ Deobandi Islam: The Religion of the Taliban U. S. Navy Chaplain Corps, 15 October 2001 ^ name=Maley2>Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8. ^ http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/print/opr/t236/e0895"The Taliban's primary religious and ideological influence is a form of Deobandī Islam." ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000) ^ "Why are Customary Pashtun Laws and Ethics Causes for Concern? | Center for Strategic and International Studies". Csis.org. 2010-10-19. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Understanding taliban through the prism of Pashtunwali code". CF2R. 2013-11-30. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Afghan Taliban". National Counterterrorism Center. Retrieved 7 April 2015. ^ a b Giustozzi, Antonio (2009). Decoding the new Taliban: insights from the Afghan field. Columbia University Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-231-70112-9. ^ a b Clements, Frank A. (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: An Encyclopedia (Roots of Modern Conflict). ABC-CLIO. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8. ^ ^ "ISIS active in south Afghanistan, officials confirm for first time". 12 January 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015. ^ "Taliban and the Northern Alliance". US Gov Info. About.com. Retrieved 2009-11-26. ^ 9/11 seven years later: US 'safe,' South Asia in turmoil "There are now some 62,000 foreign soldiers in Afghanistan, including 34,000 US troops, and some 150,000 Afghan security forces. They face an estimated 7,000 to 11,000 insurgents, according to US commanders." Retrieved 2010-08-24. ^ Hamilton, Fiona; Coates, Sam; Savage, Michael (2010-03-03). "MajorGeneral Richard Barrons puts Taleban fighter numbers at 36000". The Times (London). ^ "Despite Massive Taliban Death Toll No Drop in Insurgency". Voice of America. Akmal Dawi. Retrieved 2014-07-17. ^ Giustozzi, Antonio (2009). Decoding the new Taliban: insights from the Afghan field. Columbia University Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-231-70112-9. ^ "Pakistan militants preparing for Afghanistan civil war". Fox News. 2013-09-08. Retrieved 2013-09-29. ^ "Afghanistan forces defend Kunduz from Taliban". BBC. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015. ^ "BBC News - Rare look at Afghan National Army's Taliban fight". Bbc.com. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Taliban attack NATO base in Afghanistan - Central & South Asia". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "ISIS reportedly moves into Afghanistan, is even fighting Taliban". 12 January 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015. ^ "ISIS, Taliban announced Jihad against each other". Khaama Press. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015. ^ "Taliban leader: allegiance to ISIS ‘haram’". Rudaw. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015. ^ "Analysis: Who are the Taleban?". BBC News. 2000-12-20. ^ "From the article on the Taliban in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxford Islamic Studies. Retrieved 2010-08-27. ^ Abrams, Dennis (2007). Hamid Karzai. Infobase Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7910-9267-5. As soon as it took power though, the Taliban imposed its strict interpretation of Islamic law on the country ^ Skain, Rosemarie (2002). The women of Afghanistan under the Taliban. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-1090-3. ^ James Gerstenzan; Lisa Getter (November 18, 2001). "Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 14, 2012. ^ "Women's Rights in the Taliban and Post-Taliban Eras". A Woman Among Warlords. PBS. September 11, 2007. Retrieved September 14, 2012. ^ Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8. ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The limits of culture: Islam and foreign policy (illustrated ed.). MIT Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-262-69321-9. The Taliban's mindset is, however, equally if not more deaned by Pashtunwali ^ Giraldo, Jeanne K. (2007). Terrorism Financing and State Responses: A Comparative Perspective. Stanford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-8047-5566-5. Pakistan provided military support, including arms, ammunition, fuel, and military advisers, to the Taliban through its Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) ^ Nojumi, Neamatollah (2002). The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War and the Future of the Regio. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-312-29584-4. ^ "Pakistan's support of the Taliban". Human Rights Watch. 2000. Of all the foreign powers involved in efforts to sustain and manipulate the ongoing fighting [in Afghanistan], Pakistan is distinguished both by the sweep of its objectives and the scale of its efforts, which include soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and ... directly providing combat support. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas (2011-09-22). "Admiral Mullen: Pakistani ISI sponsoring Haqqani attacks". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 2011-12-01. During a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing today, Admiral Michael Mullen, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, highlighted the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence Agency's role in sponsoring the Haqqani Network - including attacks on American forces in Afghanistan. "The fact remains that the Quetta Shura [Taliban] and the Haqqani Network operate from Pakistan with impunity," Mullen said in his written testimony. "Extremist organizations serving as proxies of the government of Pakistan are attacking Afghan troops and civilians as well as US soldiers." Mullen continued: "For example, we believe the Haqqani Network--which has long enjoyed the support and protection of the Pakistani government and is, in many ways, a strategic arm of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Agency--is responsible for the September 13th attacks against the U.S. Embassy in Kabul." ^ Barnes, Julian E.; Matthew Rosenberg; Habib Khan Totakhil (2010-10-05). "Pakistan Urges On Taliban". The Wall Street Journal. the ISI wants us to kill everyone—policemen, soldiers, engineers, teachers, civilians—just to intimidate people, ^ Researcher, CQ (2010). Issues in Terrorism and Homeland Security: Selections From CQ Researcher. Sage. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-4129-9201-5. ^ "Afghanistan resistance leader feared dead in blast". London: Ahmed Rashid in the Telegraph. 2001-09-11. ^ Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader (March 1, 2009 ed.). Webster University Press. p. 310. ^ US attack on Taliban kills 23 in Pakistan, The New York Times, 2008-09-09 ^ Nojum, Neamatollah (2002). The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War and the Future of the Region. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-312-29584-4. ^ Rashid, Ahmed (2002). Taliban: Islam, Oil and the New Great Game in Central Asia. I.B.Tauris. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-86064-830-4. ^ Gargan, Edward A (October 2001). "Taliban massacres outlined for UN". Chicago Tribune. ^ "Confidential UN report details mass killings of civilian villagers". Newsday. newsday.org. 2001. Retrieved 2001-10-12. ^ U.N. says Taliban starving hungry people for military agenda, Associated Press, 1998-01-07 ^ Goodson, Larry P. (2002). Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics and the Rise of the Taliban. University of Washington Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-295-98111-6. ^ a b "Re-Creating Afghanistan: Returning to Istalif". NPR. 2002-08-01. ^ ISAF has participating forces from 39 countries, including all 26 NATO members. See ISAF Troop Contribution Placement (PDF), NATO, 2007-12-05, archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-11-09 ^ Skaine, Rosemarie (2009). Women of Afghanistan in the Post-Taliban Era: How Lives Have Changed and Where They Stand Today. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-3792-4. ^ Shanty, Frank (2011). The Nexus: International Terrorism and Drug Trafficking from Afghanistan. Praeger. pp. 86–88. ISBN 978-0-313-38521-6. ^ "Citing rising death toll, UN urges better protection of Afghan civilians". United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. ^ Haddon, Katherine (6 October 2011). "Afghanistan marks 10 years since war started". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. ^ "UN: Taliban Responsible for 76% of Deaths in Afghanistan". The Weekly Standard. 2010-08-10.
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  • Afghanistan

    Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 31 million people, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and China in the far northeast. Its territory covers 652,000 km2 (252,000 sq mi), making it the 41st largest country in the world.

    Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia. Through the ages the land has been home to various peoples and witnessed numerous military campaigns, notably by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, Mongols, British, Soviet Russians, and in the modern-era by Western powers. The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khiljis, Mughals, Hotaks,Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.

    The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and theRussian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah and King Mohammed Zahir Shahattempted to modernize the country. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a Soviet invasion and a series of civil wars that devastated much of Afghanistan.

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  • Mullah Akhtar Mansour

    Mullah Akhtar Mansour is the new leader of the Taliban after the death of Mullah Omar. His "appointment" to power has been under fire within the Taliban with them saying that not everyone in the Taliban appointed him. This goes against Sharia Law which is what they follow strictly.

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Viacom's Redstone Appoints Two New Members

Viacom's Redstone Appoints Two New Members

The chairman emeritus has recently appointed two‎ new trustees to a trust that will determine the direction of the media conglomerate and CBS. The two trustees are executive vice president and general counsel of National Amusements Inc, Tad Jankowski and Jill Krutick.

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  • Viacom   Viacom, Inc. (short for Video & Audio Commun...
  • Viacom
    Viacom, Inc. (short for Video & Audio Communications) is an American global mass media company with interests primarily in, but not limited to, cinema and cable television. It is the world's sixth largest broadcasting and cable company in terms of revenue (behind The Walt Disney Company, Time Warner, Comcast, Twenty-First Century Fox, Inc., and CBS Corporation, respectively). Voting control of Viacom is held by National Amusements, Inc., a privately owned theater company controlled in turn by billionaire Sumner Redstone. Redstone also holds, via National Amusements, a controlling stake in CBS Corporation. The current Viacom was created on December 31, 2005, as a spinoff from CBS Corporation, which changed its name from Viacom to CBS at the same time. CBS, not Viacom, retains control of the over-the-air broadcasting, TV production, outdoor advertising, subscription pay television (Showtime) and publishing assets (Simon & Schuster) previously owned by the pre-split company. Predecessor firms of Viacom include Gulf+Western, which later became Paramount Communications Inc., and Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Comprising BET Networks, Viacom Media Networks, and Paramount Pictures, Viacom operates approximately 170 networks reaching approximately 700 million subscribers in 160 countries.
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  • Sumner Redstone
    Sumner Murray Redstone (born Sumner Murray Rothstein; May 27, 1923) is an American businessman and media magnate. He is the majority owner and chairman of the board of the National Amusements theater chain. Through National Amusements, Redstone and his family are majority owners of CBS Corporation and Viacom (itself the parent company of Viacom Media Networks, BET Networks, and the film studio Paramount Pictures). According to Forbes, as of September 2015, he was worth US$5 billion. Redstone was formerly the executive chairman of both CBS and Viacom. In February 2016, at the age of 92, a week after a court-ordered examination by a geriatric psychiatrist, Redstone resigned both chairmanships, replaced by Leslie Moonves at CBS and Philippe Dauman at Viacom. Redstone then became chairman emeritus.
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Twitter Upgrades Tweet Format

Twitter Upgrades Tweet Format

The microblogging service has changed its tweeting format to no longer count user names and media attachments such as photos and videos as part of the length of a tweet.

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  • Twitter   Twitter is an online social networking and ...
  • Twitter

    Twitter is an online social networking and microblogging service that enables users to send and read short 140-character text messages, called "tweets". Registered users can read and post tweets, but ...{ name: 'read more', link:'en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twitter' }

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Inspectors Raid Google Paris HQ

Inspectors Raid Google Paris HQ

The headquarters of Google Paris was raided by French investigators as part of a tax evasion inquiry. Google said it was fully complying with French law. Moreover, countries such as France, Britain and others have sought ways to make sure Google, Yahoo! and other digital giants, who often have their tax bases in other countries, pay their taxes locally.

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  • Google   Google is an American multinational corporat...
  • Google

    Google is an American multinational corporation specializing in Internet-related services and products. These include online advertising technologies, search, cloud computing, and software. Most of it...{ name: 'read more', link:'en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google' }

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Greece Begins Evicting Refugees from Idomeni Camp

Greece Begins Evicting Refugees from Idomeni Camp

Hundreds of refugees are being moved out of a sprawling makeshift camp near the village of Idomeni, on the border with Macedonia. The village serves as a vital point on the so-called Balkan trail for migrants that has been closed off for months. More than 2,000 refugees were taken by bus to state-run encampments near Thessaloniki, the second-largest city in Greece. Prior to the moving, the refugees were living in squalid conditions.

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  • Greece   Greece (Greek: Ελλάδα, Elláda, pronounced ...
  • Greece

    Greece (Greek: Ελλάδα, Elláda, pronounced [eˈlaða] ), officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία [eliniˈci ðimokraˈti.a] Ellīnikī́ Dīmokratía) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek...{ name: 'read more', link:'en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greece' }

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  • Refugee camp
    A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees. Camps with over a hundred thousand people are common, but as of 2012 the average-sized camp housed around 11,400. Usually they are built and run by a government, the United Nations, or international organizations, (such as the Red Cross) or NGOs. But there are also unofficial refugee camps, like Idomeni in Greece or the Calais jungle in France, where refugees are largely left without support of governments or international organisations. Refugee camps generally develop in an impromptu fashion with the aim of meeting basic human needs for only a short time. Due to crowding and lack of infrastructure, some refugee camps can become unhygienic, leading to a high incidence of infectious diseases, including epidemics. If the return of refugees is prevented (often by civil war), a humanitarian crisis can result or continue. "Refugee camp" typically describes a settlement of people who have escaped war in their home country and have fled to a country of first asylum, but some camps also house environmental migrants and economic refugees. Some refugee camps exist for decades and people can stay in refugee camps for decades, both of which have major implications for human rights. Some camps grow into permanent settlements and even merge with nearby older communities, such as Ain al-Hilweh, Lebanon and Deir al-Balah, Palestine. Refugee camps may sometimes serve as headquarters for the recruitment, support and training of guerilla organizations engaged in fighting in the refugees' area of origin; such organizations often use humanitarian aid to supply their troops. Rwandan refugee camps in Zaire and Cambodian refugee camps in Thailand supported armed groups until their destruction by local military forces.
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Pakistan Unable to Confirm Taliban Leader's Death

Pakistan Unable to Confirm Taliban Leader's Death

The country's interior minister, Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan, has recently stated that he could not confirm the death of Afghan Taliban leader Mullah Akhtar Mansour, wihtout analysing DNA samples recovered from the recovered body that was charred beyond recognition on Pakistani soil. However, U.S. President Barack Obama has publicly confirmed that Mansour was killed in a US drone strike, and the Pentagon said separately that Mansour was plotting attacks that posed "specific, imminent threats" to U.S. troops in Afghanistan. The interior minister has described Washington's justification for the attack as "against international law".

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  • Pakistan Government   The Government of Pakistan (Urd...
  • Pakistan Government
    The Government of Pakistan (Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان‎) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Effecting the Westminster system for governing the state, the government is mainly composed of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, in which all powers are vested by the Constitution in the Parliament, the Prime Minister and the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts and amendments of the Parliament, including the creation of executive institutions, departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court. By constitutional powers, the President promulgates ordinances and passes bills. The President acts as the ceremonial figurehead while the people-elected Prime Minister acts as the chief executive (of the executive branch) and is responsible for running the federal government. There is a bicameral Parliament with the National Assembly as a lower house and the Senate as an upper house. The judicial branch systematically contains an apex Supreme Court, high courts of four provinces, district, anti-terrorism, Sharia, and the green courts; all inferior to the Supreme Court. The full name of the country is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. No other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases. The "Pakistan Government" or "Government of Pakistan" are often used in official documents representing the federal government collectively. Also, the terms "Federal" and "National" in government institutions or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. Because the seat of government is in Islamabad, "Islamabad" is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government.
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  • Mullah Akhtar Mansour

    Mullah Akhtar Mansour is the new leader of the Taliban after the death of Mullah Omar. His "appointment" to power has been under fire within the Taliban with them saying that not everyone in the Taliban appointed him. This goes against Sharia Law which is what they follow strictly.

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North Korean Ambassador Rejects Trumps Offer to Meet Kim Jong Un

North Korean Ambassador Rejects Trumps Offer to Meet Kim Jong Un

So Se Pyong, North Korea's ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva, has dismissed US Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump's proposal to meet North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, as "nonsense" and a "kind of propaganda or advertisement" in his election race. In an interview with Reuters, Trump said he was willing to meet the North Korean leader to try to stop Pyongyang's nuclear program.

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  • Kim Jong Un   Kim Jong-un, born 8 January 1983, also ...
  • Kim Jong Un

    Kim Jong-un, born 8 January 1983, also romanized as Kim Jong-eun, Kim Jong Un or Kim Jung-eun) is the supreme leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). He is the son of Kim Jong-il (1941–2011) and the grandson of Kim Il-sung (1912–1994). He has held the titles of the First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea, the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, Chairman of the National Defence Commission, the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army, and presidium member of the Politburo of the Workers' Party of Korea. He was officially declared the supreme leader following the state funeral of his father on 28 December 2011. He is the third and youngest son of Kim Jong-il and his consort Ko Yong-hui.

    From late 2010, Kim Jong-un was viewed as heir apparent to the leadership of the nation, and following his father's death, he was announced as the "Great Successor" by North Korean state television. At Kim Jong-il's memorial service, North Korean Chairman of the Supreme People's Assembly Kim Yong-nam declared that "Respected Comrade Kim Jong-un is our party, military and country's supreme leader who inherits great comrade Kim Jong-il's ideology, leadership, character, virtues, grit and courage". On 30 December 2011, the Politburo of the Workers' Party of Korea formally appointed Kim as the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army. In April 2012, the 4th Party Conference elected him to the newly created post of First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea.

    He was promoted to the rank of marshal of the DPRK in the Korean People's Army on 18 July 2012, consolidating his position as the supreme commander of the armed forces and is often referred to as Marshal Kim Jong-un or "the Marshal" by state media. He obtained two degrees, one in physics at Kim Il-sung University and another as an Army officer at the Kim Il-sung Military University. On 9 March 2014 Kim Jong-un was elected unopposed to the Supreme People's Assembly. At 32 years of age, he is the first North Korean leader born after the country's founding and the world's youngest head of state.

    Kim was named the world's 46th most powerful person by the Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People in 2013, the third highest among Koreans after Ban Ki-moon and Lee Kun-hee.

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  • Donald Trump
    Donald John Trump Sr. (born June 14, 1946) is an American business magnate, investor, television personality and author. He is the chairman and president of The Trump Organization and the founder of Trump Entertainment Resorts. Trump's extravagant lifestyle, outspoken manner, and role on the NBC reality show The Apprentice have made him a well-known celebrity who was No. 17 on the 2011 Forbes Celebrity 100 list. Trump is the son of Fred Trump, a wealthy New York City real-estate developer. He worked for his father's firm, Elizabeth Trump & Son, while attending the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1968 officially joined the company. He was given control of the company in 1971 and renamed it The Trump Organization. In 2010, Trump expressed an interest in becoming a candidate for President of the United States in the 2012 election, though in May 2011, he announced he would not run. Trump was a featured speaker at the 2013 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC). In 2013, Trump spent over $1 million to research a possible run for President of the United States in 2016. Trump is expected to make a formal announcement on whether he will run for President of the United States on June 16, 2015.
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Iranian Council Elects Ayatollah Jannati as Chairman

Iranian Council Elects Ayatollah Jannati as Chairman

The council, the Assembly of Experts, have selected an 89-year-old hard-liner as its chairman. The Iranian council is deeply concerned regarding the health of its current supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, who received treatment for prostate cancer in 2014. Moreover, this selection proves that Ayatollah Jannati, who won a majority of the 86 votes, was chosen primarily based on seniority rather than on the preference of voters.

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  • ASSEMBLY OF EXPERTS   The Assembly of Experts (also A...
  • ASSEMBLY OF EXPERTS
    The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts of the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e Khobregān or Majles-e Khobregān-e Rahbari‎‎), also translated as Council of Experts, is a deliberative body of eighty eight (88) Mujtahids (Islamic theologians) that is charged with electing and removing the Supreme Leader of Iran and supervising his activities. Members of the assembly are elected from lists of candidates by direct public vote for eight-year terms. The number of members has ranged from 82 elected in 1982 to 88 elected in 2016. Current laws require the assembly to meet for at least two days every six months. The current chairman of the Assembly is Mohammad Yazdi, being elected on 10 March 2015. All candidates to the Assembly of Experts, the President and the Majlis (Parliament), must be approved by the Guardian Council, whose members are selected by the Supreme Leader of Iran. As such, the Assembly has never questioned the Supreme Leader. There have been instances when the current Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei publicly criticized member of the Assembly of Experts resulting in their arrest and dismissal. For example, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei publicly called then-member of the Assembly of Experts Ahmad Azari Qomi, a traitor, resulting in Ahmad Azari Qomi's arrest and eventual dismissal from the Assembly of Experts.
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  • Ayatollah Jannati
    Ahmad Jannati Massah (Persian: احمد جنتی مسّاح‎‎) is a hardline Iranian politician, Shi'i cleric and a founding member of Haghani school. He is the conservative chairman of the Assembly of Experts and also Guardian Council, the body in charge of checking legislation approved by Majlis with the Constitution and sharia, and approving the candidates in various elections. He is also a temporary Friday prayer imam of Tehran. His son Hossein Jannati was a member of People's Mujahedin of Iran and was killed in a street battle by the Islamic Republic security forces in 1981. He is also father of Ali Jannati, the current culture minister of Iran.
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Russian Athletes Re-Tested Positive at Beijing Olympics

Russian Athletes Re-Tested Positive at Beijing Olympics

The Russian Olympic Committee has revealed that 14 of its athletes tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs at the 2008 Beijing Olympics after the re-testing of their samples. The International Olympic Committee believes up to 31 athletes could be banned from participating in the upcoming Rio Olympics. According to the Russian Athletics Federation, any athlete found to have been doping would not go to Rio, stating that only "clean athletes" could take part at the 5-21 August event.

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  • Beijing Olympic 2008   The 2008 Summer Olympic Games,...
  • Beijing Olympic 2008
    The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (Chinese: 第二十九届夏季奥林匹克运动会; pinyin: Dì Èrshíjiǔ Jiè Xiàjì Àolínpǐkè Yùndònghuì) and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was a major international multi-sport event that took place in Beijing, China, from 8 to 24 August 2008. A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) competed in 28 sports and 302 events (a total of one event more than the schedule of the 2004 Games). China became the 22nd nation to host the Olympic Games and the 18th to hold a Summer Olympic Games. It was the third time that the Summer Olympic Games were held in East Asia and Asia, after Tokyo, Japan, in 1964 and Seoul, South Korea, in 1988. The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making it the third time the events of the same Olympics were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs, while sailing was contested in Qingdao, and football events took place in several different cities. Beijing was awarded the Games over four competitors on July 13, 2001, having won a majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) after two rounds of voting. The Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested heavily in new facilities and transportation systems. A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including 12 constructed specifically for use at the Games. The official logo of these Olympic Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", refers to the host city by featuring a stylized calligraphic character jīng (京, meaning capital). The Games were the most watched Olympics in history, attracting 4.7 billion viewers worldwide. Some politicians and non-governmental organizations criticized the choice of China as Olympic host because of the country's human rights record, and protests by critics of China's human rights record, with particular focus on Tibet, marred the international portion of the Olympic torch relay. There were 43 world records and 132 Olympic records set at the 2008 Summer Olympics. An unprecedented 86 countries won at least one medal during the Games. Chinese athletes won the most gold medals, with 51, and 100 medals altogether, while the United States had the most total medals with 110. The final medal tally was led by host China, followed by the United States and Russia. Though there were several controversies, the games were deemed generally successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world.
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  • Russia Athletics Federation
    The All-Russia Athletic Federation (ARAF) is the governing body for the sport of athletics in Russia. Its current president is Vadim Zelichenok. In December 2014 the German broadcaster ARD made allegations of widespread doping in Russian athletics and cover-ups by the ARAF. These resulted in then ARAF President Valentin Balakhnichev's resignation as Treasurer of the IAAF. In response to these allegations, the World Anti-Doping Agency commissioned an extensive report which was published in November 2015. This report detailed extensive doping and associated corruption in Russian athletics. It recommended that ARAF be declared non-compliant with its code, and that Russian athletes be suspended from international competition.
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  • Rio Olympics
    The 2016 Summer Olympics (Portuguese: Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016), officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, and commonly known as Rio 2016, is a major international multi-sport event in the tradition of the Olympic Games due to take place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from August 5 to August 21, 2016. Record numbers of countries are participating in a record number of sports. More than 10,500 athletes from 206 National Olympic Committees (NOCs), including first time entrants Kosovo and South Sudan, will take part. With 306 sets of medals, the games will feature 28 Olympic sports — including rugby sevens and golf, which were added by the International Olympic Committee in 2009. These sporting events will take place at 33 venues in the host city and at 5 venues in the cities of São Paulo (Brazil's largest city), Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Brasília (Brazil's capital), and Manaus. These will be the first Summer Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Thomas Bach. The host city of Rio de Janeiro was announced at the 121st IOC Session held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009. Rio will become the first South American city to host the Summer Olympics. These will be the first games to be held in a Portuguese-speaking country, the first to be held in the host country's winter season, the first since 1968 to be held in Latin America, and the first since 2000 to be held in the Southern Hemisphere.
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ISIS Destroyed Helicopters at Russian Airbase

ISIS Destroyed Helicopters at Russian Airbase

According to new satellite imagery, an attack by the Islamic State extensively damaged a strategically significant airbase in central Syria used by Russian forces. Four helicopters and 20 lorries were destroyed in a series of fires inside the T4 base last week. However, the Russian military continues to deny reports that it had lost helicopters at the base as a result of an IS attack.

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  • Russia-Syria relations   Russia–Syria relations (Russ...
  • Russia-Syria relations

    Russia–Syria relations (Russian: Российско-сирийские отношения) refers to the bilateral relationship between the two countries, Russia and Syria. Russia has an embassy in Damascus, Syria has an embassy in Moscow. Russia enjoys a historically strong, stable, and friendly relationship with Syria, as it did until the Arab Spring with most of the Arab countries. Russia's only Mediterranean naval base for its Black Sea Fleet is located in the Syrian port of Tartus.

    Early in 2012, Russia took a strong stand in support of Syria's government and against international action against Syria as was promoted by Western and Arab countries. Russia in 2011 and 2012 used its veto-power in the UN Security Council to prevent possible sanctions or military intervention against the Syrian government, and continued supplying large amounts of arms that Syria had earlier contracted to buy.

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  • Islamic State of Iraq and Syria
    The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, IPA /ˈaɪsᵻl/), often translated as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria and accordingly also commonly known as ISIS (/ˈaɪsᵻs/), is a Salafi jihadist militant group that follows an Islamic fundamentalist, Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam. The group is also known as Daesh (داعش‎ dāʿish, IPA: [ˈdaːʕiʃ]), which is an acronym derived from its Arabic name ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām ("Islamic State in Iraq and Syria"; الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام). The group has referred to itself as the Islamic State (الدولة الإسلامية ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah) or IS ever since it proclaimed a worldwide caliphate in June 2014 and named Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as its caliph. As a caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide. The group's adoption of the name "Islamic State" and idea of a caliphate have been widely criticised, with the United Nations, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups rejecting its statehood or caliphhood. As of December 2015, the group has control over vast landlocked territory in Iraq and Syria, with a population estimate ranging between 2.8 million and 8 million people and where it enforces its interpretation of sharia law. ISIL affiliates control small areas of Libya, Nigeria and Afghanistan and operate in other parts of the world, including North Africa and South Asia. ISIL gained prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive, followed by the capture of Mosul and the Sinjar massacre. The subsequent possibility of a collapse of the Iraqi state prompted a renewal of US military action in the country. In Syria, the group has conducted ground attacks on both government forces and rebel factions. The number of fighters the group commands in Iraq and Syria was estimated by the CIA at 31,000, with foreign fighters accounting for around two thirds, while ISIL leaders claim 40,000 fighters, with the majority being Iraqi and Syrian nationals. Adept at social media, ISIL is widely known for its videos of beheadings of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, and its destruction of cultural heritage sites. The United Nations holds ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has charged the group with ethnic cleansing on a "historic scale" in northern Iraq. Around the world, Islamic religious leaders have overwhelmingly condemned ISIL's ideology and actions, arguing that the group has strayed from the path of true Islam and that its actions do not reflect the religion's real teachings or virtues. The group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, the European Union and its member states, the United States, Russia, India, Indonesia, Israel, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iran and other countries. Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL. The group originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda and participated in the Iraqi insurgency following the March 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western forces. Joining other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council, it proclaimed the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) in October 2006. In August 2011, following the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War, ISI, under the leadership of al-Baghdadi, delegated a mission into Syria, which under the name Jabhat an-Nuṣrah li-Ahli ash-Shām (or al-Nusra Front) established a large presence in Sunni-majority Al-Raqqah, Idlib, Deir ez-Zor, and Aleppo provinces. The merger of ISI with al-Nusra Front to form the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" (ISIL), as announced in April 2013 by al-Baghdadi, was however rejected by al-Nusra leader al-Julani, and by al-Qaeda leader al-Zawahiri who subsequently cut all ties with ISIL, in February 2014.
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Landslide in Myanmar Kills 12 People

Landslide in Myanmar Kills 12 People

A landslide disaster at a jade mine in the northern part of Myanmar has resulted in the deaths of 12 people, with dozens more possibly buried by the collapsed hillside. The landslide in Kachin State on Monday night came after heavy rainfall in recent days. As many as 100 people are feared missing in the Hpakant area, which is the center of jade mining.

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  • Landslides   A landslide, also known as a landslip, i...
  • Landslides

    A landslide, also known as a landslip, is a geological phenomenon that includes a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep failure of slopes, and shallow debris flows. Landslides can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments. Although the action of gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, there are other contributing factors affecting the original slope stability. Typically, pre-conditional factors build up specific sub-surface conditions that make the area/slope prone to failure, whereas the actual landslide often requires a trigger before being released.

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Judge Orders Bill Cosby Trial to Continue

Judge Orders Bill Cosby Trial to Continue

Judge Elizabeth McHugh at the Montgomery Courthouse recently ruled that Bill Cosby's trial on charges of sexual assault will proceed, ending a five-month struggle on part of Mr. Cosby's lawyers to have the charges dismissed. Mr. Cosby must now face t least one of his accusers at trial, probably later this year. Mr. Cosby, 78, has denied the allegations.

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  • Bill Cosby   William Henry "Bill" Cosby Jr. (born Jul...
  • Bill Cosby
    William Henry "Bill" Cosby Jr. (born July 12, 1937) is an American stand-up comedian, actor, author, activist, and philanthropist. Cosby's start in stand-up comedy began at the hungry i in San Francisco, followed by landing a starring role in the 1960s television show I Spy. During its first two seasons, he was also a regular on the children's television series The Electric Company. Using the Fat Albert character developed during his stand-up routines, Cosby created, produced, and hosted the animated comedy television series Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids, a show centered on a group of young friends growing up in an urban area that ran from 1972 until 1985. Throughout the 1970s, Cosby starred in a number of films, occasionally returning to film later in his career. In 1976, Cosby earned a Doctor of Education degree from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. His dissertation discussed the use of Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids as a teaching tool in elementary schools. Beginning in the 1980s, Cosby produced and starred in a television sitcom, The Cosby Show; the show aired from 1984 to 1992 and was rated as the number one show in America for five years, 1984 through 1989. The sitcom highlighted the experiences and growth of an affluent African-American family. Cosby produced the Cosby Show spin-off sitcom A Different World, which aired from 1987 to 1993; starred in the sitcom Cosby from 1996 to 2000; and hosted Kids Say the Darndest Things for two seasons, from 1998 to 2000.
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  • Bill Cosby sexual assault allegations
    American entertainer Bill Cosby has been the subject of publicized sexual assault allegations. With the earliest alleged incidents taking place in the mid-1960s, Cosby has been accused by nearly 60 women of either rape, drug facilitated sexual assault, sexual battery, child sexual abuse, and/or sexual misconduct. Earlier sexual assault allegations against Cosby became more public after an October 2014 comedy routine by comedian Hannibal Buress alluding to Cosby's covert sexual misbehavior went viral, and many additional claims were made after that date. The dates of the alleged incidents span from 1965 to 2008 across 10 U.S. states and one Canadian province. Cosby has maintained his innocence and repeatedly denied the allegations. In November 2014, in response to a question about the allegations, Cosby said: "I don't talk about it." Cosby has declined to publicly discuss the accusations in past interviews. However, he told Florida Today, "people shouldn't have to go through that and shouldn't answer to innuendos." In May 2015 he said, "I have been in this business 52 years and I've never seen anything like this. Reality is a situation and I can't speak." In the wake of the allegations, numerous organizations have severed ties with the comedian, and previously awarded honors and titles have been revoked. Reruns of The Cosby Show and other shows featuring Cosby have also been pulled from syndication by many organizations. Twenty-five colleges and universities have rescinded his honorary degrees. In an attempt to explain the backlash against Cosby, Adweek reporter Jason Lynch noted that the "media landscape has changed considerably—and has now been joined by the far-less-forgiving social media arena." Most of the alleged acts fall outside the statutes of limitations for criminal legal proceedings, but criminal charges have been filed against Cosby in one case and numerous civil lawsuits have been brought against him. As of November 2015, eight related civil lawsuits are active against Cosby, including two that also target Cosby's lawyer and one that also implicates his wife and manager Camille Cosby. Gloria Allred is representing 29 of the alleged victims. In July 2015, some of the court records from Andrea Constand's 2005 civil lawsuit against Cosby were unsealed and released to the public. The full transcript of his deposition was also released to the media by a court reporting service. In his testimony, Cosby admitted to casual sex, involving use of Quaaludes, with a series of young women, and acknowledged that his dispensing the prescription drug was illegal. On December 30, 2015, three Class II Felony charges of aggravated indecent assault were filed against Cosby in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania based on allegations by Constand concerning incidents in January 2004.
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Toyota Extends Airbag Recall

Toyota Extends Airbag Recall

The Japanese company is now recalling more than 1.5 million additional vehicles in the States following overwhelming concerns with airbag inflaters from the Japanese parts manufacturer Takata. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the inflaters use ammonium nitrate, which can become unstable when exposed to heat and humidity. That can cause ruptures when the airbags deploy, sending metal parts hurling into the cabin. To date, at least 11 deaths worldwide have been attributed to this defect.

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  • Toyota   Toyota Motor Corporation (Japanese: トヨタ自動車...
  • Toyota

    Toyota Motor Corporation (Japanese: トヨタ自動車株式会社, Hepburn: Toyota Jidōsha KK, IPA: [toꜜjota], /tɔɪˈoʊtə/) is a Japanese automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. In March 2014 the multinational corporation consisted of 338,875 employees worldwide and, as of November 2014, is the twelfth-largest company in the world by revenue. Toyota was the largest automobile manufacturer in 2012 (by production) ahead of the Volkswagen Group and General Motors. In July of that year, the company reported the production of its 200-millionth vehicle. Toyota is the world's first automobile manufacturer to produce more than 10 million vehicles per year. It did so in 2012 according to OICA, and in 2013 according to company data. As of July 2014, Toyota was the largest listed company in Japan by market capitalization (worth more than twice as much as #2-ranked SoftBank) and by revenue.

    The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937 as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and, in 1936, its first passenger car, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation produces vehicles under 5 brands, including the Toyota brand, Hino, Lexus, Ranz, and Scion. It also holds a 51.2% stake in Daihatsu, a 16.66% stake in Fuji Heavy Industries, a 5.9% stake in Isuzu, and a 0.27% stake in Tesla, as well as joint-ventures with two in China (GAC Toyota and Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor), one in India (Toyota Kirloskar), one in the Czech Republic (TPCA), along with several "nonautomotive" companies. TMC is part of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world.

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Egyptian Authorities Dismiss Explosion Causing EgyptAir Crash

Egyptian Authorities Dismiss Explosion Causing EgyptAir Crash

According to the country's forensics authority, the theory that an explosion on board caused the EgyptAir plane to crash is premature and speculative at this point of the investigation. Investigators are currently looking for clues in the human remains and debris salvaged from the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, the plane and its black box recorders have yet to be located.


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  • EgyptAir crash   EgyptAir crash may refer to several ...
  • EgyptAir crash
    EgyptAir crash may refer to several incidents involving EgyptAir aircraft: EgyptAir Flight 763 – 1972 – crashed approaching Aden International Airport EgyptAir Flight 864 – 1976 – crashed into industrial complex in Bangkok – pilot error EgyptAir Flight 990 – 1999 – crashed into sea off Massachusetts, USA – deliberate action by pilot, or mechanical failure EgyptAir Flight 843 – 2002 – crashed near Tunis in a storm – pilot error
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Taliban confirms death of Mullah Akhtar Muhammad Mansour

Taliban confirms death of Mullah Akhtar Muhammad Mansour

On Wednesday morning, the Taliban confirmed the death of Mullah Akhtar Muhammad Mansour, the group’s leader. In a statement, the group said Mullah Mansour was killed in an American drone strike. Mawlawi Haibatullah Akhundzada, a deputy to Mullah Mansour, has been selected as the new leader of the Taliban. President Barack Obama announced that Mullah Mansour had been killed in a drone strike on Monday in a province of Pakistan, but until Wednesday, the Taliban had not acknowledged the strike.

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  • Taliban in Pakistan   Not to be confused with the Afg...
  • Taliban in Pakistan
    Not to be confused with the Afghan Taliban. Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP; Urdu: تحریک طالبان پاکستان; "Taliban Movement of Pakistan"), alternatively referred to as the Pakistani Taliban, is an umbrella organization of various Islamist militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan. Most, but not all, Pakistani Taliban groups coalesce under the TTP. In December 2007 about 13 groups united under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud to form the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan. Among the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan's stated objectives are resistance against the Pakistani state, enforcement of their interpretation of sharia and a plan to unite against NATO-led forces in Afghanistan. The TTP is not directly affiliated with the Afghan Taliban movement led by Mullah Omar, with both groups differing greatly in their histories, strategic goals and interests although they are both predominantly Pashtun. The Afghan Taliban, with the alleged support of Pakistani Taliban, operate against international coalition and Afghan security forces in Afghanistan but are strictly opposed to targeting the Pakistani state. The TTP in contrast has almost exclusively targeted elements of the Pakistani state although it took credit for the 2009 Camp Chapman attack and the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt. Maulana Fazlullah became the group's new leader in late 2013. In the following year the TTP fragmented into at least four groups, with the defections said to have left the group in considerable disarray.
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  • Taliban
    The Taliban (Pashto: طالبان‎ ṭālibān "students"), alternately spelled Taleban, is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan. It spread throughout Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. However, it gained diplomatic recognition from only three states: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Mohammed Omar is the founder and has been serving as the spiritual leader of the Taliban since its foundation in 1994. While in power, it enforced a strict interpretation of Sharia, or Islamic law, an interpretation of which leading Muslims have been highly critical. The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women. The majority of the Taliban are made up of Afghan Pashtun tribesmen. The Taliban's leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism, and many also strictly follow the social and cultural norm called Pashtunwali. From 1995 to 2001, the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence and military are widely alleged by the international community to have provided support to the Taliban. Their connections are possibly through Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, a terrorist group founded by Sami ul Haq. Pakistan is accused by many international officials of continuing to support the Taliban; Pakistan states that it dropped all support for the group after 9/11. Al-Qaeda also supported the Taliban with regiments of imported fighters from Arab countries and Central Asia. Saudi Arabia provided financial support. The Taliban and their allies committed massacres against Afghan civilians, denied UN food supplies to 160,000 starving civilians and conducted a policy of scorched earth, burning vast areas of fertile land and destroying tens of thousands of homes during their rule from 1996 to 2001. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced to flee to United Front-controlled territory, Pakistan, and Iran. After the attacks of September 11, 2001, the Taliban were overthrown by the American-led invasion of Afghanistan. Later it regrouped as an insurgency movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). The Taliban have been accused of using terrorism as a specific tactic to further their ideological and political goals. According to the United Nations, the Taliban and their allies were responsible for 75% of Afghan civilian casualties in 2010, 80% in 2011, and 80% in 2012. ^ a b http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/347009"To rule Afghanistan and impose the groups interpretation of Islamic law which includes influences of Deobandi fundamentalism and Pashtunwali culture"Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/347009#ixzz3BqDqscCB ^ Deobandi Islam: The Religion of the Taliban U. S. Navy Chaplain Corps, 15 October 2001 ^ name=Maley2>Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8. ^ http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/print/opr/t236/e0895"The Taliban's primary religious and ideological influence is a form of Deobandī Islam." ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000) ^ "Why are Customary Pashtun Laws and Ethics Causes for Concern? | Center for Strategic and International Studies". Csis.org. 2010-10-19. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Understanding taliban through the prism of Pashtunwali code". CF2R. 2013-11-30. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Afghan Taliban". National Counterterrorism Center. Retrieved 7 April 2015. ^ a b Giustozzi, Antonio (2009). Decoding the new Taliban: insights from the Afghan field. Columbia University Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-231-70112-9. ^ a b Clements, Frank A. (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: An Encyclopedia (Roots of Modern Conflict). ABC-CLIO. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8. ^ ^ "ISIS active in south Afghanistan, officials confirm for first time". 12 January 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015. ^ "Taliban and the Northern Alliance". US Gov Info. About.com. Retrieved 2009-11-26. ^ 9/11 seven years later: US 'safe,' South Asia in turmoil "There are now some 62,000 foreign soldiers in Afghanistan, including 34,000 US troops, and some 150,000 Afghan security forces. They face an estimated 7,000 to 11,000 insurgents, according to US commanders." Retrieved 2010-08-24. ^ Hamilton, Fiona; Coates, Sam; Savage, Michael (2010-03-03). "MajorGeneral Richard Barrons puts Taleban fighter numbers at 36000". The Times (London). ^ "Despite Massive Taliban Death Toll No Drop in Insurgency". Voice of America. Akmal Dawi. Retrieved 2014-07-17. ^ Giustozzi, Antonio (2009). Decoding the new Taliban: insights from the Afghan field. Columbia University Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-231-70112-9. ^ "Pakistan militants preparing for Afghanistan civil war". Fox News. 2013-09-08. Retrieved 2013-09-29. ^ "Afghanistan forces defend Kunduz from Taliban". BBC. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015. ^ "BBC News - Rare look at Afghan National Army's Taliban fight". Bbc.com. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "Taliban attack NATO base in Afghanistan - Central & South Asia". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "ISIS reportedly moves into Afghanistan, is even fighting Taliban". 12 January 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015. ^ "ISIS, Taliban announced Jihad against each other". Khaama Press. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015. ^ "Taliban leader: allegiance to ISIS ‘haram’". Rudaw. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015. ^ "Analysis: Who are the Taleban?". BBC News. 2000-12-20. ^ "From the article on the Taliban in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxford Islamic Studies. Retrieved 2010-08-27. ^ Abrams, Dennis (2007). Hamid Karzai. Infobase Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7910-9267-5. As soon as it took power though, the Taliban imposed its strict interpretation of Islamic law on the country ^ Skain, Rosemarie (2002). The women of Afghanistan under the Taliban. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-1090-3. ^ James Gerstenzan; Lisa Getter (November 18, 2001). "Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 14, 2012. ^ "Women's Rights in the Taliban and Post-Taliban Eras". A Woman Among Warlords. PBS. September 11, 2007. Retrieved September 14, 2012. ^ Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8. ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The limits of culture: Islam and foreign policy (illustrated ed.). MIT Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-262-69321-9. The Taliban's mindset is, however, equally if not more deaned by Pashtunwali ^ Giraldo, Jeanne K. (2007). Terrorism Financing and State Responses: A Comparative Perspective. Stanford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-8047-5566-5. Pakistan provided military support, including arms, ammunition, fuel, and military advisers, to the Taliban through its Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) ^ Nojumi, Neamatollah (2002). The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War and the Future of the Regio. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-312-29584-4. ^ "Pakistan's support of the Taliban". Human Rights Watch. 2000. Of all the foreign powers involved in efforts to sustain and manipulate the ongoing fighting [in Afghanistan], Pakistan is distinguished both by the sweep of its objectives and the scale of its efforts, which include soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and ... directly providing combat support. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas (2011-09-22). "Admiral Mullen: Pakistani ISI sponsoring Haqqani attacks". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 2011-12-01. During a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing today, Admiral Michael Mullen, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, highlighted the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence Agency's role in sponsoring the Haqqani Network - including attacks on American forces in Afghanistan. "The fact remains that the Quetta Shura [Taliban] and the Haqqani Network operate from Pakistan with impunity," Mullen said in his written testimony. "Extremist organizations serving as proxies of the government of Pakistan are attacking Afghan troops and civilians as well as US soldiers." Mullen continued: "For example, we believe the Haqqani Network--which has long enjoyed the support and protection of the Pakistani government and is, in many ways, a strategic arm of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Agency--is responsible for the September 13th attacks against the U.S. Embassy in Kabul." ^ Barnes, Julian E.; Matthew Rosenberg; Habib Khan Totakhil (2010-10-05). "Pakistan Urges On Taliban". The Wall Street Journal. the ISI wants us to kill everyone—policemen, soldiers, engineers, teachers, civilians—just to intimidate people, ^ Researcher, CQ (2010). Issues in Terrorism and Homeland Security: Selections From CQ Researcher. Sage. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-4129-9201-5. ^ "Afghanistan resistance leader feared dead in blast". London: Ahmed Rashid in the Telegraph. 2001-09-11. ^ Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader (March 1, 2009 ed.). Webster University Press. p. 310. ^ US attack on Taliban kills 23 in Pakistan, The New York Times, 2008-09-09 ^ Nojum, Neamatollah (2002). The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War and the Future of the Region. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-312-29584-4. ^ Rashid, Ahmed (2002). Taliban: Islam, Oil and the New Great Game in Central Asia. I.B.Tauris. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-86064-830-4. ^ Gargan, Edward A (October 2001). "Taliban massacres outlined for UN". Chicago Tribune. ^ "Confidential UN report details mass killings of civilian villagers". Newsday. newsday.org. 2001. Retrieved 2001-10-12. ^ U.N. says Taliban starving hungry people for military agenda, Associated Press, 1998-01-07 ^ Goodson, Larry P. (2002). Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics and the Rise of the Taliban. University of Washington Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-295-98111-6. ^ a b "Re-Creating Afghanistan: Returning to Istalif". NPR. 2002-08-01. ^ ISAF has participating forces from 39 countries, including all 26 NATO members. See ISAF Troop Contribution Placement (PDF), NATO, 2007-12-05, archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-11-09 ^ Skaine, Rosemarie (2009). Women of Afghanistan in the Post-Taliban Era: How Lives Have Changed and Where They Stand Today. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-3792-4. ^ Shanty, Frank (2011). The Nexus: International Terrorism and Drug Trafficking from Afghanistan. Praeger. pp. 86–88. ISBN 978-0-313-38521-6. ^ "Citing rising death toll, UN urges better protection of Afghan civilians". United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. ^ Haddon, Katherine (6 October 2011). "Afghanistan marks 10 years since war started". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. ^ "UN: Taliban Responsible for 76% of Deaths in Afghanistan". The Weekly Standard. 2010-08-10.
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Scientists Working to Create Half-Human, Half-Animal Embryos

Scientists Working to Create Half-Human, Half-Animal Embryos

Researchers at the University of California Berkeley have recently been working on creating half-human, half-animal embryos. They have dubbed them "Chimeras." One aim of the study is to create hybrids to harvest and transplant human organs from animals into sick humans.

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  • Chimera   Chimera, chimaira, or chimaera may refer to...
  • Chimera
    Chimera, chimaira, or chimaera may refer to: Chimera (mythology), a monstrous creature with parts from multiple animals Mount Chimaera, the region in Lycia that some believe was an inspiration for the myth
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  • University of California - Berkeley
    The University of California, Berkeley (also referred to as Berkeley, UC Berkeley, California or simply Cal) is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. It is the flagship campus of the University of California system, one of three parts in the state's public higher education plan, which also includes the California State University system and the California Community Colleges System. It is considered by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as one of six university brands that lead in world reputation rankings in 2016 and is ranked third on the U.S. News' 2015 Best Global Universities rankings conducted in the U.S. and nearly 50 other countries. The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) also ranks the University of California, Berkeley fourth in the world overall, and first among public universities. It is broadly ranked first in science, third in engineering, and fifth in social sciences, with specific rankings of first in chemistry, first in physics, third in computer science, fourth in mathematics, and fourth in economics/business. The university is also well known for producing a high number of entrepreneurs. Established in 1868 as the result of the merger of the private College of California and the public Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College in Oakland, UC Berkeley is the oldest institution in the UC system and offers approximately 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. The University of California has been charged with providing both "classical" and "practical" education for the state's people. Cal co-manages three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories, including the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. Berkeley faculty, alumni, and researchers have won 72 Nobel Prizes (including 30 alumni Nobel laureates), 9 Wolf Prizes, 13 Fields Medals (including 3 alumni medalists), 22 Turing Awards, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 105 Olympic gold medals (47 silver and 33 bronze). To date, along with Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers have discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table (californium, seaborgium, berkelium, einsteinium, fermium, lawrencium, etc.) – more than any other university in the world. Lawrence Livermore Lab also discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements (113 to 118). Berkeley is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and continues to have very high research activity with $730.7 million in research and development expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2014.
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Edward Nero Found Not Guilty

Edward Nero Found Not Guilty

The Baltimore police officer was ruled not guilty of all charges in connection with the death of 25-year-old Freddie Gray, who died of a spinal injury while in custody. Nero was one six officers charged and the second to be tried in the Gray case, accused of second-degree intentional assault, two counts of misconduct in office and reckless endangerment.

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  • Freddie Gray   25-year-old African-American male who ...
  • Freddie Gray
    25-year-old African-American male who died of a spine injury on April 19, 2015 while in Baltimore Police custody.
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  • Baltimore Police
    The Baltimore Police Department (BPD) provides police services to the City of Baltimore, Maryland and was originally organized in 1784 as a "nightwatch" and a force of day "Constables". It was reorganized by mayor of Baltimore Thomas Swann in 1857, and officially established by the Maryland Legislature on March 16, 1853. It is the eighth largest police force in the US and is organized into ten districts, nine based on geographical areas and the Public Housing Section, and is responsible for policing 80.9 square miles (210 km2) of land and 11.1 square miles (29 km2) of waterways. The department is sometimes referred to as the Baltimore City Police Department to distinguish itself from the Baltimore County Police Department.
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Battle to Retake Fallujah from ISIS Begins

Battle to Retake Fallujah from ISIS Begins

Iraqi government forces battled Islamic State militants near Falluja early on Monday. The city's central districts were bombarded before Iraq's ground troops advanced to the enemy's stronghold. With the support of the US and coalition airstrikes, Iraqi troops, police, and Shiite militias were able to push ISIS militants back towards Fallujah.


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  • Counterterrorism   Counter-terrorism (also called ant...
  • Counterterrorism
    Counter-terrorism (also called anti-terrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism. If terrorism is part of a broader insurgency, counter-terrorism may employ counter-insurgency measures. The United States Armed Forces use the term foreign internal defense for programs that support other countries in attempts to suppress insurgency, lawlessness, or subversion or to reduce the conditions under which these threats to security may develop.
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  • United States Military
    The United States Armed Forces[1] are the federal military forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. The United States has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military. The President of the United States is the military's overall head, and helps form military policy with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), a federal executive department, acting as the principal organ by which military policy is carried out. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and Cabinet member. The Defense Secretary is second in the military's chain of command, just below the President, and serves as the principal assistant to the President in all DoD-related matters. To coordinate military action with diplomacy, the President has an advisory National Security Council headed by a National Security Advisor. Both the President and Secretary of Defense are advised by a seven-member Joint Chiefs of Staff, which includes the head of each of the Defense Department's service branches as well as the chief of the National Guard Bureau. Leadership is provided by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Commandant of the Coast Guard is not a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. All of the branches work together during operations and joint missions, under the Unified Combatant Commands, under the authority of the Secretary of Defense with the exception of the Coast Guard, which is under the administration of the Department of Homeland Security and receives its operational orders from the Secretary of Homeland Security. However, the Coast Guard may be transferred to the Department of the Navy by the President or Congress during a time of war. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States, the two others being the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (under the Department of Health and Human Services) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps (under the Department of Commerce). From the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and not until the outbreak of World War II did a large standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U.S. military framework; the Act merged previously Cabinet-level Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment (renamed the Department of Defense in 1949), headed by the Secretary of Defense; and created the Department of the Air Force and National Security Council. The U.S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its manpower from a large pool of paid volunteers; although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1972. As of 2013, the United States spends about $554.2 billion annually to fund its military forces, and appropriates approximately $88.5 billion to fund Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the United States constitutes roughly 39 percent of the world's military expenditures. For the period 2010–14, SIPRI found that the United States was the world's biggest exporter of major arms, accounting for 31 per cent of global shares. The United States was also the world's eight largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The U.S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection thanks to its advanced and powerful equipment and its widespread deployment of force around the world.
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  • ISIL/ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant)

    The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL /ˈaɪsəl/; Arabic: الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام‎), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS /ˈaɪsɪs/), or simply as the Islamic State, is an Islamic extremist group controlling territory in Iraq and Syria, with limited territorial control in Libya and Nigeria. The group also operates or has affiliates in many other parts of the world, including Southeast Asia.

    The group is known in Arabic as ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fīl-ʿIrāq wash-Shām, leading to the acronym Da'ish, Da'eesh, or DAESH (داعش, Arabic pronunciation: [ˈdaːʕiʃ]), the Arabic equivalent of "ISIL". On 29 June 2014, the group proclaimed itself to be a worldwide caliphate, with Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi being named its caliph, and renamed itself "Islamic State" (الدولة الإسلامية, ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah). The new name and the idea of a caliphate has been widely criticised and condemned, with the United Nations, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups all refusing to acknowledge it. As caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide and that "the legality of all emirates, groups, states, and organisations, becomes null by the expansion of the khilāfah's [caliphate's] authority and arrival of its troops to their areas". Many Islamic and non-Islamic communities judge the group to be unrepresentative of Islam.

    The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated as a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Syria, Egypt, India, and Russia. Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL.

    The group originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. The group participated in the Iraqi insurgency, which had followed the March 2003 invasion of Iraq. In January 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council, which in October 2006 proclaimed the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI).

    Under the leadership of al-Baghdadi, the ISI sent delegates into Syria in August 2011 after the Syrian Civil War began in March 2011. This group named itself Jabhat an-Nuṣrah li-Ahli ash-Shām or al-Nusra Front, and established a large presence in Sunni-majority areas of Syria, within the governorates of Ar-Raqqah, Idlib, Deir ez-Zor, and Aleppo.

    In April 2013, al-Baghdadi announced the merger of his ISI with al-Nusra Front, and announced that the name of the reunited group was now the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). However, both Abu Mohammad al-Julani and Ayman al-Zawahiri, the leaders of al-Nusra and al-Qaeda respectively, rejected the merger. After an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda cut all ties with ISIL on 3 February 2014, citing its failure to consult and "notorious intransigence".

    ISIL is known for its well-funded web and social media propaganda, which includes Internet videos of beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists and aid workers, as well as the deliberate destruction of cultural heritage sites.

    The group gained notoriety after it drove the Iraqi government forces out of key western cities in Iraq. In Syria, it conducted ground attacks against both government forces and rebel factions in the Syrian Civil War. It gained those territories after an offensive, initiated in early 2014, which senior US military commanders and members of the US House Committee on Foreign Affairs saw as a re-emergence of Sunni insurgents and al-Qaeda militants. Iraq's territorial loss almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi government and prompted renewal of US military action in Iraq.

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  • Fallujah, Iraq
    Fallujah (Arabic: الفلوجة‎, al-Fallūjah Iraqi pronunciation: [el.fɐl.ˈluː.dʒɐ]) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly 69 kilometers (43 mi) west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. Fallujah dates from Babylonian times and was host to important Jewish academies for many centuries. The city grew from a small town in 1947 to a population of 326,471 inhabitants in 2010. Within Iraq, it is known as the "city of mosques" for the more than 200 mosques found in the city and the surrounding villages. In January 2014, a variety of sources reported that the city was controlled by al-Qaeda and/or its affiliate, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS; sometimes called ISIL). On a broadcast of National Public Radio's All Things Considered, Middle East analyst Kirk Sowell stated that while ISIS was occupying parts of the city, most of the ground lost was to the tribal militias who are opposed to both the Iraqi government and al-Qaeda. Speaking on condition of anonymity at the end of May 2014, an Anbar-based Iraqi government security officer told Human Rights Watch that ISIS was in control of several neighborhoods of southeast Fallujah as well as several northern and southern satellite communities, while local militias loyal to the Anbar Military Council controlled the central and northern neighborhoods of the city; however, Human Rights Watch stated that they could not confirm these claims.
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Hair & Senses posted an event
Hair loss •  Hair

Powerful Yoga for Hair Loss

Hair Transplant in Delhi clinic gives ultimate guide here on yoga tips for hair loss.

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  • Hair loss   Hair loss, also known as alopecia or bald...
  • Hair loss
    Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from the head or body. Baldness can refer to general hair loss or male pattern hair loss. Hair loss and hypotrichosis have many causes including androgenetic alopecia, fungal infection, trauma (e.g., due to (trichotillomania), radiotherapy, chemotherapy, nutritional deficiencies (e.g., iron deficiency), and autoimmune diseases (e.g., alopecia areata). Hair loss severity occurs across a spectrum with extreme examples including alopecia totalis (total loss of hair on the head) and alopecia universalis (total loss of all hair on the head and body).
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  • Hair
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